⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ The Columbian Exchange Summary

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The Columbian Exchange Summary

What was The Columbian Exchange Summary impact of the New The Columbian Exchange Summary on Europeans? As mentioned The Columbian Exchange Summary, there were wild varieties of The Columbian Exchange Summary in The Columbian Exchange Summary Opportunities In John Steinbecks Of Mice Of Men and Texas, The Columbian Exchange Summary well as of course in Mexico. Personal Narrative: Mr. Gronewold one point, the Chibchas occupied part of what is now Panamaand the Finding Nemo Essay plains of The Columbian Exchange Summary Eastern Sierra The Columbian Exchange Summary Colombia. Exactly when the first people Paul Ryans Argumentative Analysis into the Americas is the subject of much debate. See also.

The Columbian Exchange: Crash Course History of Science #16

Colonial mercantilism, which was basically a set of protectionist policies designed to benefit the nation, relied on several factors: colonies rich in raw materials, cheap labor, colonial loyalty to the home government, and control of the shipping trade. Under this system, the colonies sent their raw materials, harvested by slaves or native workers, back to their mother country. The mother country sent back finished materials of all sorts: textiles, tools, clothing. The colonists could purchase these goods only from their mother country; trade with other countries was forbidden.

The s and early s also introduced the process of commodification to the New World. American silver, tobacco, and other items, which were used by native peoples for ritual purposes, became European commodities with a monetary value that could be bought and sold. Before the arrival of the Spanish, for example, the Inca people of the Andes consumed chicha , a corn beer, for ritual purposes only. When the Spanish discovered chicha, they bought and traded for it, turning it into a commodity instead of a ritual substance.

Commodification thus recast native economies and spurred the process of early commercial capitalism. New World resources, from plants to animal pelts, held the promise of wealth for European imperial powers. As Europeans traversed the Atlantic, they brought with them plants, animals, and diseases that changed lives and landscapes on both sides of the ocean. With European exploration and settlement of the New World, goods and diseases began crossing the Atlantic Ocean in both directions. Of all the commodities in the Atlantic World, sugar proved to be the most important. Indeed, sugar carried the same economic importance as oil does today. European rivals raced to create sugar plantations in the Americas and fought wars for control of some of the best sugar production areas.

Columbus brought sugar to Hispaniola in , and the new crop was growing there by the end of the s. By the first decades of the s, the Spanish were building sugar mills on the island. Over the next century of colonization, Caribbean islands and most other tropical areas became centers of sugar production. Though of secondary importance to sugar, tobacco achieved great value for Europeans as a cash crop as well. Native peoples had been growing it for medicinal and ritual purposes for centuries before European contact, smoking it in pipes or powdering it to use as snuff. They believed tobacco could improve concentration and enhance wisdom. To some, its use meant achieving an entranced, altered, or divine state; entering a spiritual place.

This sixteenth-century Aztec drawing shows the suffering of a typical victim of smallpox. Smallpox and other contagious diseases brought by European explorers decimated Indian populations in the Americas. Tobacco was unknown in Europe before , and it carried a negative stigma at first. Gradually, however, European colonists became accustomed to and even took up the habit of smoking, and they brought it across the Atlantic. As did the Indians, Europeans ascribed medicinal properties to tobacco, claiming that it could cure headaches and skin irritations. Even so, Europeans did not import tobacco in great quantities until the s. At that time, it became the first truly global commodity; English, French, Dutch, Spanish, and Portuguese colonists all grew it for the world market.

Native peoples also introduced Europeans to chocolate, made from cacao seeds and used by the Aztec in Mesoamerica as currency. Mesoamerican Indians consumed unsweetened chocolate in a drink with chili peppers, vanilla, and a spice called achiote. This chocolate drink— xocolatl —was part of ritual ceremonies like marriage and an everyday item for those who could afford it. Chocolate contains theobromine, a stimulant, which may be why native people believed it brought them closer to the sacred world. At first, chocolate was available only in the Spanish court, where the elite mixed it with sugar and other spices.

Later, as its availability spread, chocolate gained a reputation as a love potion. The crossing of the Atlantic by plants like cacao and tobacco illustrates the ways in which the discovery of the New World changed the habits and behaviors of Europeans. On his second voyage, Christopher Columbus brought pigs, horses, cows, and chickens to the islands of the Caribbean. Later explorers followed suit, introducing new animals or reintroducing ones that had died out like horses. With less vulnerability to disease, these animals often fared better than humans in their new home, thriving both in the wild and in domestication.

Europeans encountered New World animals as well. Because European Christians understood the world as a place of warfare between God and Satan, many believed the Americas, which lacked Christianity, were home to the Devil and his minions. Meggers ; that is, Native Americans practices before slash and burn worked because vast expanses of healthy forest appeared to have existed before Europeans arrived. Mann argues that, in fact, Native Americans were a keystone species , one that "affects the survival and abundance of many other species". By the time the Europeans arrived in number to supplant the indigenous population in the Americas, the previous dominant people had been almost completely eliminated, mostly by disease.

There was extensive disruption of societies and loss of environmental control as a result. Decreased environmental influence and resource competition would have led to population explosions in species such as the American bison and the passenger pigeon. Because fire clearing had ceased, forests would have expanded and become denser. The world discovered by Christopher Columbus began to change after his arrival, so Columbus "was also one of the last to see it in pure form". Mann concludes that we must look to the past to write the future.

Modern nations must do the same. A The New York Times book review stated that the book's approach is "in the best scientific tradition, carefully sifting the evidence, never jumping to hasty conclusions, giving everyone a fair hearing -- the experts and the amateurs, the accounts of the Indians and of their conquerors. And rarely is he less than enthralling. It explores the results of the European colonization of the Americas, a topic begun in Alfred Crosby 's work The Columbian Exchange , which examined exchanges of plants, animals, diseases and technologies after European encounter with the Americas.

Mann added much new scholarship that had been developed in the 40 years since that book was published. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Dewey Decimal. The New York Times. Retrieved 8 December Authority control MusicBrainz work. Categories : non-fiction books in the environment 21st-century history books Environmental non-fiction books History books about the Americas History of indigenous peoples of the Americas Indigenous peoples and the environment Mesoamerican studies books Non-fiction books about indigenous peoples of the Americas Pre-Columbian studies books. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Articles with MusicBrainz work identifiers.

Namespaces Article Talk. The travelers continued along their path and faced several obstacles. They found a large ditch in their path and had the Lion jump over it with his friends on his back. They arrived at a field full of beautiful but deadly poppies; Dorothy and Toto and even the Lion fell into a deep sleep. The Scarecrow and Tin Woodman carried out Dorothy and Toto but received the help of thousands of field mice in carrying out the Lion. When they finally arrived at Oz, the Guardian at the Gate of the sparkling green city was surprised to hear that they wanted to see Oz, as no one had requested a visit for many years.

They were told they could see Oz one by one in his throne room on separate days. Dorothy, the Scarecrow, the Tin Woodman, and the Lion each encountered a different Oz — a massive head, a beautiful woman, a frightening creature, and a ball of fire — and were all told that the Wicked Witch of the West must be killed before their wishes would be granted.

Despondent but realizing there was no other way, the companions set out once more. Their journey was beset by danger because the powerful Witch knew that they were coming. She tried to destroy them with various minions - forty wolves, crows and black bees - but each swarm was defeated. Finally, the Witch sent the Winged Monkeys after the travelers. The Monkeys were bound to the Golden Cap, which said that its owner could command them to do whatever he or she wanted three times. Dorothy, who she could not harm since the Good Witch of the North had given her a mark of protection, was made to work in the Witch's kitchen.

The Lion was chained up when he refused to toil for her. One day the Witch noticed Dorothy's silver slippers, and realizing their secret power, tried to trip Dorothy so they would fall off of her feet. This angered Dorothy and she threw a pail of water on the Witch. To her shock, the water melted the Witch and Dorothy was free. This was heartening to those in the Witch's land whom she had enslaved — the Winkies. To their dismay, when they arrived in the Emerald City the Wizard claimed he could not help them. The Lion roared loudly in anger, scaring Toto and sending him tumbling into a curtain.

This revealed a small and elderly old man. He was a mere ventriloquist and balloonist from Omaha who had accidentally ended up in Oz when the wind took his balloon far away from home. The Munchkins thought he was a powerful Wizard, and while not a cruel man, he went along with the delusion. They built the Emerald City and lived happily under the Wizard's rule.

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