⌛ The Role Of Propaganda In Animal Farm
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Propaganda and manipulation on Animal Farm
Those who do not agree that nonhumans should be equally considered to humans are called speciesists. The groundwork for this argument is that if possessing intelligence of a higher degree does not entitle one human to use another for his or her own ends, how can it entitle humans to exploit nonhumans for the same purpose? As we have seen, the principle of equality is a principle which determines to take into equal consideration the interests of all beings affected by such a principle. The beings which are affected are those which have interests. In the article " Animal Rights: Equal Experiencers of Suffering ," I argue that animals have an interest not to experience suffering. To limit the principle of equality to humans would suggest that only humans have interests, but why would one suggest that?
What is an interest and how does it come about? Singer, speaking from a utilitarian viewpoint, suggests that interests come about by beings having a capacity for pleasure and for pain; mainly an interest to receive or maximize pleasure and minimize pain. Anything else is a means in order to achieve pleasure or avoid pain. If the principle of equality is to be extended to all beings with interests, then Singer's next goal is to prove that nonhumans have any interests at all.
In order to prove his argument that nonhumans have interests, Singer states that any being with the capacity for suffering or enjoyment is one that has interests; for the capacity for suffering and enjoyment is a prerequisite for having interests at all. When considering suffering, any being who suffers should have their suffering considered equally to any other being who suffers. If there is such a being that does not have the capacity to suffer, then they should not be considered when receiving any sort of equality. To further prove his argument, Singer must now display that nonhuman beings are sentient; that they can experience, at the very least, suffering.
Finding that nonhuman beings can suffer due to an experience of pain is not a difficult thing to determine. Although there may be some Descartians around who still believe that animals are strictly highly functioning automata, it is generally considered that animals can experience and receive pain. The author of a book on pain which is quoted in Singer's Animal Liberation writes, "Apart from the complexity of the cerebral cortex which does not directly perceive pain [higher nonhuman mammalian vertebrates'] nervous systems are almost identical to [humans'] and their reactions to pain remarkably similar It seems that the only difference is the ability to express pain in terms that we humans understand. This ability of expression is called language and it should not be considered a detriment to the principle of equality for all sentient beings.
For, as the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein once stated, "Language may be necessary for abstract thought, at some level anyway; but states like pain are more primitive, and have nothing to do with language" To those who do not agree with this statement, I implore you to put out a cigar on an infant or to cut off the leg of a handless mute, for they obviously feel no pain according to your requirement of an expression of language. When considering the infliction of pain upon a sentient being, it must be clarified that it is not the action which brings about pain that should be considered as equal, rather it should be the amount of pain felt by the receiver of pain.
Like Singer noted, slapping a horse will not hurt the horse as much as slapping a small child would. However, breaking the horses leg with a baseball bat would be equal to breaking a child's leg with a bat, since both sentient beings are experiencing the pain of a broken leg. Also, and again, the level of intellect the sentient being has should not elicit any form of difference in the equal consideration a being experiencing pain could have. This is noted because there is an argument which is commonly used that states that adult humans have more capacity for suffering because they can anticipate some sort of pain they might receive in the future.
An example of this anticipation would be if scientists were kidnapping adults out of parks and performing terribly painful experiments on them, then this would most likely result in adults staying away from parks. The terror and fear they would form when thinking about what might happen to them if they were to enter into the park would be a form of suffering. The argument suggests that since animals cannot cognate such anticipated experiences, then human suffering must be more so than animal suffering.
However, as Singer has noted, if one does take this position, then they should be fine with these scientists kidnapping and experimenting on infants and a person with an intellectual disability. For infants and intellectually disabled humans can no more foresee the intense pain they might receive upon entering the park than can an animal. Their lack of foresight does not mean that they can experience any less suffering than can an adult human being. To conclude the first chapter of Animal Liberation , Singer, believing that he has successfully posed a valid and convincing argument for the principle of equality amongst all sentient beings based on the infliction of pain and suffering on said beings, turns to the topic of killing nonhuman sentient beings.
This topic, Singer admits, is a bit more difficult than equal consideration of the rights of animals, because there is still an ongoing debate whether it is right to kill certain humans or not. Fortunately, though, Singer determines to argue against the killing of nonhuman beings. In doing so, he adopts the 'sanctity of life' view and extends it to all sentient beings. Commonly, the 'sanctity of life' view is a speciesist view which makes the claim that it is wrong to take an innocent human life. Singer wants to extend this view to all animals, both human and nonhuman alike, by allowing that, " What criteria are necessary for determining which being have a right to life?
It may seem as though a human being with a capacity for self-awareness, the ability to plan for the future, and having meaningful relationships with others may have more of a right to life than a mouse. However, if these be the criteria we chose--self-awareness, ability to plan for the future, and having meaningful relationships with others--we must then admit that a chimpanzee, dog, or pig, which are superior in all of the capacities over an infant or a intellectually disabled human being, has more of a right to life than the infant or intellectually disabled human being.
In any case, it should be noted that these criteria are not relevant to the question of inflicting pain, just in the worth of life. Therefore, Singer notes that some lives may have more worth than others. If we were given the dilemma of saving the life of a normal human to that of an intellectually disabled human, or of a normal human to that of a dog, typically the normal human's life would be saved every time.
The true difference comes when considering pain in these beings. For it is not as clear if we were given the dilemma of saving a normal human from pain over an intellectually disabled human from pain which we would chose. Likely, both humans would be taken into equal consideration. If it is true that both humans would be taken into equal consideration because of the pain, then it should be equally true that nonhuman animals should be taken into equal consideration when considering pain. Not doing so would be speciesist. If both humans and nonhumans are given equal consideration about the minimization of suffering from pain, then this means they are given equal consideration in their capacities to not suffer from pain. If we give both humans and nonhumans equal consideration in the fulfilling of these capacities, then they should be given equal consideration in the pursuit of pleasure throughout the life they live.
If they are given equal pursuit of pleasure throughout the life they live, then it is wrong to kill humans and nonhumans because it would be obstructing their ability to fulfill the natural capacities of receiving pleasure and avoiding pain, of which they have. In chapter two of Animal Liberation , Singer relates the gruesome tales of what happens when humans regard themselves as higher beings over animals and disregard the truth that animals have the ability to suffer from the experience of pain.
The second chapter displays case after case of scientific research which is performed on animals so that new products or information can be made and given to humans for their own personal consumption. With this being said, many of the experiments performed on animals as "tools for research" acquire no new forms of relevant or useful information for the researchers. Often times the researchers do not have good explanations for the experiments they are performing on animals. And, in nearly every United States experiment, researchers are receiving their money from the taxes that the common American pays. Ultimately, this means that the common American taxpayer is directly funding these unnecessary tests and experiments on animals; experiments which cause permanent, prolonged, and severe suffering for the animals.
In order to expose such cruel and utility lacking research, Singer reviews experiments such as the ones conducted over many years at Brooks Air Force Base, in Texas. In this experiment, scientists took trained monkeys and involved them in a flight simulator known as the Primate Equilibrium Platform, or PEP. The monkeys sit in a chair that is part of the platform. In front of them is a control stick, by means of which the platform can be returned to a horizontal position" The point of this experiment is fiction. The experimenters wanted to see how long the monkeys can continue to 'fly' after being exposed to lethal or sublethal doses of radiation or to chemical warfare agents.
The monkeys are trained to fly the simulator through seven phases. This takes at least two years. Each phase consisting of long hours of the monkeys being restrained in the PEP chair. In addition to the restraints, the monkeys are trained by a series of strong electric shocks throughout each phase. The shocks are noted as painful to the monkeys, but are 'necessary' in order to properly train the monkey to maintain the horizontal level of the PEP as it pitches and rolls throughout the flight simulation. Once the monkeys have mastered the PEP device, instead of being rewarded for all of their time, effort, and suffering, they are given lethal or sublethal doses of radiation and made to perform the experiments over again. The monkeys are given repeated low doses of Soman.
Results indicated that, "The subject was completely incapacitated on the day following the last exposure, displaying neurological symptoms including gross incoordination, weakness, and intention tremor" During these days of chemical sickness, the monkeys were unable to perform the PEP tests. Donald Barnes, one of the scientists who was in charge of the experiments estimates that he used about one thousand monkeys for this experiment over the years. He later became a strong opponent of animal experimentation. Furthermore, regardless of Dr. Barnes' study and results, Dr. Roy Dehart, Commander, U. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, stated that if there was a nuclear confrontation, it was highly unlikely that they would rely on the figures and charts based on the PEP tests.
In conclusion, it seems as though the testing was for no direct purpose. The monkeys were subjected to years of suffering from shock conditioning, were rewarded with sublethal doses of Soman, and the results will hardly ever be consulted by someone who can use them for a practical purpose. Singer displays many other experiments throughout this chapter that have similar avail, or lack thereof. Often times, experiments are repeated to see if scientists get the same results as previous scientists.
An example of this is Martin Reite of the University of Colorado, who conducted deprivation experiments on bonnet monkeys and pigtailed macaques. He was aware of Jane Goodall's observations of orphaned wild chimpanzees in which she described many behavioral disturbances, along with sadness and depression. However, " The isolated infants screamed, rocked, and threw themselves at the walls of the chamber. Reite concluded that 'isolation in infant chimpanzees may be accompanied by marked behavioral changes" Like many other experiments, the conclusion of that experiment was that of the conclusive evidence posed by an earlier scientist. Also, like in most experiments, more research was needed. A similar experimenter, Harry Harlow, conducted maternal deprivation experiments which subjected over seven thousand animals to procedures that induced distress, depression, anxiety, general psychological devastation, and death.
Like Reite, Harlow dismissed the question of why he was performing these experiments. That we already have extensive observations of orphaned chimpanzees in the wild seems not to have been of interest to them" These experiments and similar research has all been paid by taxpayers " Often times, when the proper research is done and exposed, the general populace will find that they are directly funding the suffering of other animals. If Singer was correct in his first chapter, this means that we are directly impeding on the animal's right to life.
Research methods like these are used for military, psychological, and higher educational experimentation. All kinds of animals are used for these experiments: monkeys, rats, dogs, cats, fish, rabbits, and other such animals. Often times, the experimenters state that their work is for the benefit of humans even when the experiments conducted end up showing no correlation or relation to humans at all. So, there is a dilemma which exists for experimenters, " In most cases, one will find that the experiments conducted would be considered far too cruel to be tested on humans, such as LD50 toxicity tests. LD50 stands for lethal dose 50 percent: "the amount of the substance that will kill up to half of the animals in the study. To find the dose level, sample groups of animals are poisoned.
Normally, before the point at which half of them die is reached, the animals are all very ill and in obvious distress" Testing for cosmetics and other substances are often times used in animals' eyes. If asked, he says that donkeys live a long time, and that "none of you has ever seen a dead donkey". True to his cynical nature, he continues to believe that life never gets better. He is briefly outraged by Boxer's death but becomes ever more cynical when Squealer again convinces the denizens of the Farm that Boxer was only taken to a hospital.
In the end, this works out to Squealer's advantage. Terror and silver-tongued oration fool nearly everyone, and the sole animal who sees through these fronts, Benjamin, is simply too cynical to do anything. This reflected Orwell's view that events in Russia following the Revolution of had followed an unwelcome path, and that the egalitarian socialism he believed in had there become a brutal dictatorship built around a cult of personality and enforced by terror and lies. Orwell regarded propaganda as a feature of all modern governments but especially prominent in totalitarian regimes, which depended on it.
In The Prevention of Literature he described "organized lying" as a crucial element of totalitarian states. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fictional character from George Orwell's "Animal Farm". George Orwell's Animal Farm. Animals Pink Floyd album " Piggies ". Categories : Fictional pigs Fictional politicians Animal Farm characters Literary characters introduced in Fictional revolutionaries Fictional characters based on real people Male literary villains Pigs in literature Male characters in literature.
Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January Namespaces Article Talk. For instance, each of the Three Little Pigs expresses a different approach to planning for the future and managing risk, which can lead to an analysis of how each character represents a moral or physical quality. In terms of narration, note the degree to which the narrator lets the characters speak in their own voices and lets the plot play out without editorializing.
In terms of structure, consider how critical events shatter the calm such as getting lost in the woods or encountering an enemy and lead to a moral once some kind of order for better or for worse is restored. The Question and Answer section for Animal Farm is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. What were the animals completely certain of? Now if there was one thing that the animals were completely certain of, it was that they did not want Jones back.
Animal Farm, Chapter 6. Note, the animals may choose not to work, but if they don't, they will have their rations reduced by half. A comparison between animal farm and mice of men??? These two books are so different. I can't even think of a theme that really matches. Animal farm is a political allegory whereas Of Mice and Men is a dramatic character study. Animal Farm study guide contains a biography of George Orwell, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Animal Farm essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Animal Farm by George Orwell. Remember me. Forgot your password?
Buy Study Guide. The animals were completely certain that they did not want Jones back.Journal has a political prisoners section that provides contact information for The Role Of Propaganda In Animal Farm, "ecological resistance," anti-imperialist and anti-capitalist convicts. You might Hollywood In Beowulf Essay like Animal farm is also known as symbolic writing for Russia during the revolution in and the Soviet nation under the communist The Role Of Propaganda In Animal Farm, and themes of wuthering heights The Role Of Propaganda In Animal Farm common people were affected by it.