⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Cognitive Approach Vs Biological Approach

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Cognitive Approach Vs Biological Approach



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A Level Psychology: The Cognitive Approach

It will analyze the theories underlying the two models through a review of literature. The person-centered model provides an empathic and non-judgmental environment to the client to facilitate reflective evaluation of the emotions emerging from his or her life situation. In a counseling setting, the counselor employs active listening to allow the client to reveal his emotional and personal problems and devise ways of handling them. Its efficacy and application depend on the age and life situation of the client. A study by Gibbard and Hanley , evaluated the effectiveness of the person-centered model in the counseling of patients with mild mental illnesses. In this study, a therapist offered client-based counseling sessions to participants who were suffering from mood and anxiety disorders.

They were allowed to tell their stories and experiences in a non-judgmental setting free of questioning or criticism. The results indicated that the person-centered approach is quite effective in helping people with mild mental disorders to understand their life experiences and learn to manage their conditions. It is evident that, by helping a client through a journey of self-discovery and self-actualization, he or she understands his or her current situation and learns to manage personal issues emanating from his or her life experiences. A comparable study by Tursi and Cochran evaluated the counseling relationship in a person-centered setting.

They draw similarities between the person-centered and the cognitive-behavioral counseling. One of the similarities identified in this study is that both approaches guide clients through a journey of self-actualization. Moreover, both enable clients to improve their thought patterns cognitions and self-concept in order to deal with dysfunctional actions or views in their lives. However, the person-centered approach may not be effective in addressing all problems. Some clients, especially children, may find it difficult to talk to a therapist, which can hamper the self-actualization process.

Unlike the person-centered approach, the cognitive-behavioral model aims at changing the irrational beliefs in a client that cause misbehaviors or disorders to realistic ones. Individual views are largely dependent on cultural and societal factors. In his study, Lin evaluated the foundations underlying the cognitive-behavioral theory to determine its effectiveness in the counseling of Chinese clients. This implies that culture shapes individual behavior, values, and cognitive processes. Since, the cognitive-behavioral approach aims at empowering clients to become more self-assertive and develop a positive self-concept individualistic , it contradicts the Chinese values of collectivism and Confucianism.

In the Chinese culture, self-assertiveness and public expression of emotions are considered dishonorable Lin, Thus, the efficacy and application of the cognitive-behavioral theory in counseling depends on culture. This means that counselors must identify which elements of the theory may elicit negative emotions from the client and avoid them or use a different model. The cognitive-behavioral therapy is comparable to the humanistic counseling approach. A study by Shechtman and Pastor compared the effectiveness of the two models in the counseling of children. They found that the humanistic approach was better than the cognitive-behavioral model in counseling.

They concluded that the structured nature of the cognitive-behavioral model hampers group therapy. Thus, this approach has certain limitations that make it inappropriate in particular settings. Psychotherapy is another common counseling approach that is based on psychoanalysis of the client. Zamanian and Adams applied psychotherapy in counseling sexual abuse victims young children. The results indicated that psychotherapy could help clients develop coping and adaptive skills. The five studies reviewed above use different methods to examine specific measures.

The researchers then randomly selected the participants into two groups: the humanistic therapy and the cognitive-behavioral therapy groups. The participants were then subjected to group and individual therapy and their academic performance and behavior measured in order to compare the efficacy of the two counseling approaches. These measures were evaluated before and after each person-centered counseling session using a CORE measurement tool. The participants also gave their views regarding the person-centered approach used to counsel them.

In their study, Zamanian and Adams employed psychotherapy approach in counseling distressed children. The participants were boys who had fallen victim to child molestation. Despite being traumatized, they were in good mental state, had healthy social life, and did not abuse drugs. To achieve this, the participants were made to participate in a number of physical activities during each counseling session. Tursi and Cochran used a phenomenological approach to evaluate the efficacy and application of the person-centered and cognitive-behavioral theory in counseling.

The aim of the study was to identify the points of convergence of the two models. To achieve this, the researchers analyzed the theoretical underpinnings of the two theories as well as their assumptions. Similarly, Lin used the phenomenological approach to evaluate the efficacy and application of the cognitive-behavioral approach in counseling Chinese clients. The authors identified various discrepancies between the Chinese and Western cultures that reduce the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral counseling.

Differences in culture, beliefs, and value system make the approach ineffective in non-Western cultures, including Chinese. The researchers made different conclusions based on their findings. In this regard, they concluded that the person-centered approach is effective in counseling of clients with mild mental disorders. On his part, Lin found that minor differences between the Western and Chinese cultures hamper the effectiveness of the cognitive-behavioral theory in counseling Chinese clients. They concluded that cognitive-behavioral therapists should adjust their approach when handling clients from other cultures.

In their study, Shechtman and Pastor found the humanistic group therapy to be more effective in counseling children with learning disabilities compared to the cognitive-behavioral therapy. Based on this finding, they concluded that the cognitive-behavioral theory cannot be applied in all therapeutic relationships. Moreover, other approaches, including the humanistic group therapy, produce better outcomes than the cognitive-behavioral theory.

In another study, Tursi and Cochran found similarities between the cognitive-behavioral approach and the person-centered therapy in relation to their theoretical underpinnings. The two theories were found to facilitate self-actualization in individuals. On their part, Zamanian and Adams found that psychotherapy could improve interpersonal and coping skills in victims of sexual abuse. From these results, researchers concluded that long-term psychotherapy could help trauma victims to deal with emotional and personal issues as well as improve their interpersonal skills.

The cognitive-behavioral and the person-centered approaches are important models in counseling. Their application and efficacy depend on the age of the client and the setting of the therapy, among others. The five studies reviewed in this essay have highlighted the differences in efficacy and applicability of the two counseling models. It is evident that the two theories have separate and distinct therapeutic uses depending on client characteristics and the setting. While these feelings are outside of awareness, they are still believed to influence conscious actions.

Therapists who take this approach believe that by analyzing memories, behaviors, thoughts, and even dreams , people can uncover and deal with some of the feelings that have been leading to maladaptive behaviors and distress. This approach to abnormal psychology focuses on observable behaviors. In behavioral therapy, the focus is on reinforcing positive behaviors and not reinforcing maladaptive behaviors. The behavioral approach targets only the behavior itself, not the underlying causes. When dealing with abnormal behavior, a behavioral therapist might utilize strategies such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning to help eliminate unwanted behaviors and teach new behaviors. This approach to abnormal psychology focuses on the biological causes of mental illness, emphasizing understanding the underlying cause of disorders, which might include genetic inheritance, related physical illnesses, infections, and chemical imbalances.

Medical treatments are often pharmacological in nature, although medication is often used in conjunction with some type of psychotherapy. The cognitive approach to abnormal psychology focuses on how internal thoughts, perceptions, and reasoning contribute to psychological disorders. Cognitive treatments typically focus on helping the individual change their thoughts or reactions. Cognitive therapy might also be used in conjunction with behavioral methods in a technique known as cognitive behavioral therapy CBT. The main topics in abnormal psychology are the study, understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of psychological disorders.

Psychological disorders are defined as patterns of behavioral or psychological symptoms that impact multiple areas of life. These conditions create distress for the person experiencing symptoms. The manual contains a listing of psychiatric disorders, diagnostic codes, information on the prevalence of each disorder, and diagnostic criteria. Some of the categories of psychological disorders include:. The field of abnormal psychology is not without criticism.

In addition to debates over the use of the term "abnormal" itself, some believe that this area has a number of shortcomings. One study found that teaching students about abnormal psychology did not reduce mental health stigma, improve attitudes toward mental illness, or increase help-seeking behaviors among students. Abnormal psychology may focus on atypical behavior, but its focus is not to ensure that all people fit into a narrow definition of "normal.

By better understanding what is "abnormal," researchers and therapists can come up with new ways to help people live healthier and more fulfilling lives. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. National Institute of Mental Health. Mental illness. Updated January Bargh JA, Morsella E. The Unconscious Mind. Perspect Psychol Sci. DOI: Walinga J. Behaviourist psychology. In: Stangor C, Walinga J, eds. Introduction to Psychology: 1st Canadian edition. BCcampus Open Education;

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