✍️✍️✍️ Optical Telescopes Advantages

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Optical Telescopes Advantages

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Refracting vs Reflecting Telescopes

The distance between the objective lens and the ocular lens is slightly shorter than the focal length of the ocular lens, f e. This causes the ocular lens to act as a magnifying glass to the first image and makes it even larger. Diagram of a Compound Microscope : This diagram shows the setup of mirrors that allow for the magnification of images. Since each lens produces a magnification that multiplies the height of the image, the total magnification is a product of the individual magnifications. The equation for calculating this is as follows:.

The telescope aids in observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation, such as visible light. The telescope aids in observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation, such as x-rays, visible light, infrared, and submillimeter rays. The first telescopes were invented in the Netherlands in the s and used glass lenses. Shortly after, people began to build them using mirrors and called them reflecting telescopes. The first telescope was a refracting telescope made by spectacle makers in the Netherlands in In , Galileo made his own improved design. After the refracting telescope was invented, people began to explore the idea of a telescope that used mirrors.

The potential advantages of using mirrors instead of lenses were a reduction in spherical aberrations and the elimination of chromatic aberrations. In , Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope. With the invention of achromatic lenses in , color aberrations were partially corrected, and shorter, more functional refracting telescopes could be constructed. Reflecting telescopes were not practical because of the highly corrosive metals used to make mirrors until the introduction of silver-coated glass mirrors in Schematic of Keplerian Refracting Telescope : All refracting telescopes use the same principles.

The combination of an objective lens 1 and some type of eyepiece 2 is used to gather more light than the human eye is able to collect on its own, focus it 5, and present the viewer with a brighter, clearer, and magnified virtual image 6. The figure above is a diagram of a refracting telescope. The objective lens at point 1 and the eyepiece point 2 gather more light than a human eye can collect by itself. The image is focused at point 5, and the observer is shown a brighter, magnified virtual image at point 6. The objective lens refracts, or bends, light.

This causes the parallel rays to converge at a focal point, and those that are not parallel converge on a focal plane. Reflecting telescopes, such as the one shown in, use either one or a combination of curved mirrors that reflect light to form an image. They allow an observer to view objects that have very large diameters and are the primary type of telescope used in astronomy. The object being observed is reflected by a curved primary mirror onto the focal plane.

The distance from the mirror to the focal plane is called the focal length. A sensor could be located here to record the image, or a secondary mirror could be added to redirect the light to an eyepiece. Catadioptric telescopes, such as the one shown in, combine mirrors and lenses to form an image. This system has a greater degree of error correction than other types of telescopes. The combination of reflective and refractive elements allows for each element to correct the errors made by the other.

The principle of diffraction is applied to record interference on a subatomic level in the study of x-ray crystallography. X-ray diffraction was discovered by Max von Laue, who won the Nobel Prize in physics in for his mathematical evaluation of observed x-ray diffraction patterns. Diffraction is the irregularities caused when waves encounter an object. The rainbow pattern that appears is a result of the light being interfered by the pits and lands on the disc that hold the data. Diffraction can happen to any type of wave, not just visible light waves. In x-ray crystallography, the term for diffraction is Bragg diffraction, which is the scattering of waves from a crystalline structure.

The waves will experience either constructive interference or destructive interference. Similarly, the x-ray beam that is diffracted off a crystal will have some parts that have stronger energy, and others that lose energy. This depends on the wavelength and the lattice spacing. The XRD machine uses copper metal as the element for the x-ray source.

Diffraction patterns are recorded over an extended period of time, so it is very important that the beam intensity remains constant. Film used to be used to record the data, but that was inconvenient because it had to be replaced often. Now the XRD machines are equipped with semiconductor detectors. These XRD machines record images in two ways, either continuous scans or step scanning.

In continuous scans, the detector moves in circular motions around the object, while a beam of x-ray is constantly shot at the detector. Pulses of energy are plotted with respect to diffraction angle. The step scan method is the more popular method. It is much more efficient than continuous scans. In this method, the detector collects data at a single fixed angle at a time. To ensure that the incident beam is continuous, XRD machines are equipped with a Soller slit. This acts like polarized sunglasses by organizing random x-ray beams into a stack of neatly arranged waves parallel to the plane of the detector.

Radiography uses x-rays to view material that cannot be seen by the human eye by identifying areas of different density and composition. X-ray imaging, or radiography, used x-rays to view material within the body that cannot be seen by the human eye by identifying areas of different density and composition. CT Scans use the assistance of a computer to take this information, and generate 3 dimensional images. X-ray radiographs are produced by projecting a beam of X-rays toward an object, in medical cases, a part of the human body. Depending on the physical properties of the object density and composition , some of the X-rays can be partially absorbed. The portion of the rays that are not absorbed then pass through the object and are recorded by either film or a detector, like in a camera.

This provides the observer with a 2 dimensional representation of all the components of that object superimposed on each other. X-Ray Radiography : Radiography of the knee in a modern X-ray machine. Tomography refers to imaging by sections, or sectioning. The three-dimensional image is broken down into sections. S 1 shows a section from the left and S 2 shows a section from the right. CT scans, or computed tomography scans use a combination of X-ray radiography and tomography to produce slices of areas of the human body.

Doctors can analyze the area, and based on the ability of the material to block the X-ray beam, understand more about the material. Doctors can cross reference the images with known properties of the same material and determine if there are any inconsistencies or problems. Although generally these scans are shown as in, the information recorded can be used to create a 3 dimensional image of the area. Microscopes are instruments that let the human eye see objects that would otherwise be too small. There are many types of microscopes: optical microscopes, transmission electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopes and scanning probe microscopes.

One way to group microscopes is based on how the image is generated through the microscope. Here are three ways we can classify microscopes:. Microscopes can also be classified based on whether they analyze the sample by scanning a point at a time scanning electron microscopes , or by analyzing the entire sample at once transmission electron microscopes. In optical imaging, there is a fundamental limit to the resolution of any optical system that is due to diffraction. The resolution of an optical imaging system e. However, there is a fundamental maximum to the resolution of any optical system that is due to diffraction a wave nature of light. Since the atmosphere is opaque for most of the electromagnetic spectrum, only a few bands can be observed from the Earth's surface.

These bands are visible — near-infrared and a portion of the radio-wave part of the spectrum. For this reason there are no X-ray or far-infrared ground-based telescopes as these have to be observed from orbit. Even if a wavelength is observable from the ground, it might still be advantageous to place a telescope on a satellite due to astronomical seeing. Different types of telescope, operating in different wavelength bands, provide different information about the same object.

Together they provide a more comprehensive understanding. Telescopes that operate in the electromagnetic spectrum :. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Telescopes. Optical instrument that makes distant objects appear magnified. For other uses, see Telescope disambiguation. Main article: History of the telescope. Main article: Optical telescope. Main articles: Radio telescope and Radio astronomy. Main article: X-ray telescope. Main article: Telescope mount. See also: Airmass. List of optical telescopes List of largest optical reflecting telescopes List of largest optical refracting telescopes List of largest optical telescopes historically List of radio telescopes List of solar telescopes List of space observatories List of telescope parts and construction List of telescope types Category:Telescopes Category:Cosmic-ray telescopes Category:Gamma-ray telescopes Category:Gravitational wave telescopes Category:High energy particle telescopes Category:Infrared telescopes Category:Submillimetre telescopes Category:Ultraviolet telescopes Category:X-ray telescopes.

Profiles in Colonial History. Aleck Loker. Stargazer: The Life and Times of the Telescope. Cambridge University Press. Canada under the stars. Retrieved 16 April ISBN Archived from the original on 1 November Amateur Observational Sidewalk Space telescope. Category Commons. Astronomy portal Outer space portal Solar System portal Stars portal. Authority control. Latvia Japan. Categories : Telescopes Astronomical imaging Astronomical instruments Science and technology in the Dutch Republic s in the Dutch Republic 17th-century inventions Dutch inventions. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. The name, Dobsonian, arises from its designer, John Dobson , who devised it back in the s. It first became popular in the s in northern California.

Publicity helped its popularity and due to its ease of use and relatively low cost, it has become one of the most common telescopes recommended for beginners or for those wanting a larger reflector for the power, but at a lower price. The telescope sits on a simple altitude- azimuth mount with Teflon bearings allowing smooth movement in two directions — up and down and side to side parallel with the horizon. A Dobsonian is a reflector type telescope and so uses mirrors rather than lenses to capture and reflect light for that image of your sky view.

I explain the pros and cons of reflectors where I wrote about reflectors vs refractors. Yes, Dobsonians are good for viewing planets. See also: Best Time For Stargazing. Dobs are a larger scope but are easy to take out and set up. They are also easy to use and more stable than those mounted on tripods which tend to shake when touched. Price: The main advantage and reason most beginners opt for a Dobsonian is the price.

To further understand this…Mirrors cost less than lenses, which are the optics used in refractors and Schmidt-Cassegrain telescopes, and so the Dobsonians can be made more cheaply than other types of telescopes. The bigger the aperture, the more it gathers light, right? The more light-gathering ability the more you will be able to observe the fainter details. You can buy a good-sized aperture in a Dobsonian for less than you would any other telescope type. Simple fabrication: The second main advantage is the simple construction. This not only makes it more affordable but also quick to set up and easy to use. Stable solid mount: The rocker style alt az mount is a solid stable construction as well as a simple design. You can use it without concern of breaking cogs or other finer parts.

From time to time, Dobsonians require collimation, which is the process of aligning the mirrors so that they work together to deliver well-focused light to your eyepiece. It may seem daunting, but once you get the hang of it, collimating your telescope is not that difficult.

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