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Pronatalism In The Caribbea

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Pirates of the Caribbean Medley (Hans Zimmer) live piano cover by Mark Wilburn @ Tom Lee Music #potc

However, recent studies have revealed that crops and pottery were already present in some Archaic Caribbean populations before the arrival of the Saladoid. For example, Jamaica has no known settlements until around AD while the Cayman Islands show no settlement evidence before European arrival. Following the colonisation of Trinidad it was originally proposed that Saladoid groups island-hopped their way to Puerto Rico. However, current research tends to move away from this stepping-stone model [15] in favour of the southward route hypothesis.

The southward route hypothesis proposes that the northern Antilles were settled directly from South America followed by progressively southward movements into the Lesser Antilles. This hypothesis has been supported by both radiocarbon dates and seafaring simulations. Flinty Bay on Antigua, is one of the best known sources of high quality flint in the Lesser Antilles. The presence of flint from Antigua on many other Caribbean Islands highlights the importance of this material during the Pre-Columbian period.

The period from to AD saw major cultural, socio-political and ritual reformulations, which took place both on the mainland and in many Caribbean islands. Furthermore, this period is characterised with a change in climate. Centuries of abundant rainfall were replaced by prolonged droughts and increased hurricane frequency. In general the Caribbean population increased and communities changed from residence in a single village to the creation of settlement cluster. Additionally the amount of agriculture on the Caribbean islands increased. Lithic analysis have also show the development of tighter networks between islands during the post-Saladoid period. The period after AD can be seen as a period of transition in which status differentiation and hierarchically ranked society evolved, which can be identified by a shift from achieved to ascribed leadership.

This process disrupted more-or-less independent lines of development of local communities and marked the beginnings of sociopolitical changes on a much larger scale. DNA studies changed some of the traditional beliefs about pre-Columbian indigenous history. According to conventional historical belief, Puerto Ricans have mainly Spanish ethnic origins, with some African ancestry, and distant and less significant indigenous ancestry. Moreover, indigenous populations of islands like Puerto Rico and Hispaniola were likely far smaller at the time of the Spanish arrival than previously thought. Soon after the voyages of Christopher Columbus to the Americas , both Portuguese and Spanish ships began claiming territories in Central and South America.

These colonies brought in gold, and other European powers, most specifically England, the Netherlands, and France, hoped to establish profitable colonies of their own. Imperial rivalries made the Caribbean a contested area during European wars for centuries. In the Spanish American wars of independence in the early nineteenth century, most of Spanish America broke away from the Spanish Empire , but Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under the Spanish crown until the Spanish—American War of Significant amounts of gold were found in their personal ornaments and other objects such as masks and belts enticing the Spanish search for wealth. To supplement the Amerindian labour, the Spanish imported African slaves.

Although Spain claimed the entire Caribbean, they settled only the larger islands of Hispaniola , Puerto Rico , Jamaica , Cuba , and Trinidad and the small 'pearl islands' of Cubagua and Margarita off the Venezuelan coast because of their valuable pearl beds, which were worked extensively between and The other European powers established a presence in the Caribbean after the Spanish Empire declined, partly due to the reduced native population of the area from European diseases. The Dutch, the French, and the British followed one another to the region and established a long-term presence.

They brought with them millions of slaves imported from Africa to support the tropical plantation system that spread through the Caribbean islands. During the first three-quarters of the sixteenth century, matters of balance of power and dynastic succession weighed heavily on the course of European diplomacy and war. Europe's largest and most powerful kingdoms, France and Spain, were the continent's staunchest rivals. In , France went to war with the Holy Roman Empire. Spanish troops routed French armies in France, the Italian Peninsula, and elsewhere, forcing the French Crown to surrender in and again in The Italian Wars , as the French-Spanish wars came to be known, reignited in and again in Intermittent warring between the Valois monarchy and the Habsburg Empire continued until French corsair attacks began in the early s, as soon as France declared war on Spain in At the time, prodigious treasures from Mexico began to cross the Atlantic en route to Spain.

In , off the Cape of St. Vincent , Portugal, his vessels captured two Spanish ships laden with a fabulous treasure consisting of 70, ducats worth of gold, large quantities of silver and pearls, and 25, pounds of sugar, a much-treasured commodity at the time. Corsair port raids in Cuba and elsewhere in the region usually followed the rescate ransom model, whereby the aggressors seized villages and cities, kidnapped local residents, and demanded payment for their release. If there were no hostages, corsairs demanded ransoms in exchange for sparing towns from destruction. Whether ransoms were paid or not, corsairs looted, committed unspeakable violence against their victims, desecrated churches and holy images, and left smoldering reminders of their incursions.

In , France and Spain went to war again and French corsairs launched a series of attacks on Spanish Caribbean settlements and ships. The next year, a corsair vessel appeared in Havana and demanded a ducat rescate. Spanish men-of-war arrived soon and scared off the intruding vessel, which returned soon thereafter to demand yet another rescate.

Santiago was also victim of an attack that year, and both cities endured raids yet again in The waters off Cuba's northwest became particularly attractive to pirates as commercial vessels returning to Spain had to squeeze through the mile-long strait between Key West and Havana. In —, corsairs captured and sacked nine Spanish vessels. While France and Spain were at peace until , beyond-the-line corsair activity continued. When war erupted again, it echoed once more in the Caribbean. A particularly vicious French corsair attack took place in Havana in It left a gory toll of killed Spanish settlers. In all, between and , French corsairs carried out around sixty attacks against Spanish settlements and captured over seventeen Spanish vessels in the region — While the French and Spanish fought one another in Europe and the Caribbean, England sided with Spain, largely because of dynastic alliances.

Spain's relations with England soured upon the crowning of Elizabeth I in She openly supported the Dutch insurrection and aided Huguenot forces in France. After decades of increasing tensions and confrontations in the northern Atlantic and the Caribbean, Anglo-Spanish hostilities broke out in , when the English Crown dispatched over 7, troops to the Netherlands and Queen Elizabeth liberally granted licenses for privateers to carry out piracy against Spain's Caribbean possessions and vessels.

Tensions further intensified in , when Elizabeth I ordered the execution of Catholic Mary Queen of Scotts after twenty years of captivity and gave the order for a preemptive attack against the Spanish Armada stationed in Cadiz. In retaliation, Spain organised the famous naval attack that ended tragically for Spain with the destruction of the "invincible" Armada in Spain rebuilt its naval forces, largely with galleons built in Havana, and continued to fight England until Elizabeth's death in Spain, however, had received a near-fatal blow that ended its standing as Europe's most powerful nation and virtually undisputed master of the Indies.

Following the Franco-Spanish peace treaty of , crown-sanctioned French corsair activities subsided, but piratical Huguenot incursions persisted and in at least one instance led to the formation of a temporary Huguenot settlement in the Isle of Pines, off Cuba. English piracy increased during the reign of Charles I, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland — and became more aggressive as Anglo-Spanish relations tensed up further during the Thirty Years' War.

Although Spain and the Netherlands had been at war since the s, the Dutch were latecomers, appearing in the region only after the mids, when the Dutch Republic was no longer on the defensive in its long conflict against Spain. Dutch privateering became more widespread and violent beginning in the s. English incursions in the Spanish-claimed Caribbean boomed during Queen Elizabeth's rule. These actions originally took the guise of well-organised, large-scale smuggling expeditions headed by piratical smugglers the likes of John Hawkins , John Oxenham , and Francis Drake; their primary objectives were smuggling African slaves into Spain's Caribbean possessions in exchange for tropical products.

Hawkins and his contemporaries mastered the devilish art of maximising the number of slaves that could fit into a ship. He and other slave traders methodically packed slaves by having them lay on their sides, spooned against one another. Hawkins and Drake barely escaped but Oxenham was captured, convicted of heresy by the Inquisition and burned alive. Many of the battles of the Anglo-Spanish war were fought in the Caribbean, not by regular English troops but rather by privateers whom Queen Elizabeth had licensed to carry out attacks on Spanish vessels and ports. These were former pirates who now held a more venerable status as privateers. During those years, over seventy-five documented English privateering expeditions targeted Spanish possessions and vessels.

Drake terrorised Spanish vessels and ports. Early in , his forces seized Santo Domingo , retaining control over it for around a month. Before departing they plundered and destroyed the city, taking a huge bounty. The development of agriculture in the Caribbean required a large workforce of manual labourers, which the Europeans found by taking advantage of the slave trade in Africa.

Slaves were brought to the Caribbean from the early 16th century until the end of the 19th century. The majority of slaves were brought to the Caribbean colonies between and Also in there was a slave revolution in the colony of Barbados. The following table lists the number of slaves brought into some of the Caribbean colonies: [35]. Abolitionists in the Americas and in Europe became vocal opponents of the slave trade throughout the 19th century. The importation of slaves to the colonies was often outlawed years before the end of the institution of slavery itself. It was well into the 19th century before many slaves in the Caribbean were legally free.

Men, women and children who were already enslaved in the British Empire remained slaves, however, until Britain passed the Slavery Abolition Act in When the Slavery Abolition Act came into force in , roughly , slaves in the British West Indies immediately became free; other enslaved workers were freed several years later after a period of forced apprenticeship. Slavery itself was not abolished in Cuba until France abolished slavery in its colonies in They lived as single slaves or as part of maternal or extended families but considered themselves 'married.

European plantations required laws to regulate the plantation system and the many slaves imported to work on the plantations. This legal control was the most oppressive for slaves inhabiting colonies where they outnumbered their European masters and where rebellion was persistent such as Jamaica. During the early colonial period, rebellious slaves were harshly punished, with sentences including death by torture; less serious crimes such as assault, theft, or persistent escape attempts were commonly punished with mutilations, such as the cutting off of a hand or a foot.

Under British rule, slaves could only be freed with the consent of their master, and therefore freedom for slaves was rare. British colonies were able to establish laws through their own legislatures, and the assent of the local island governor and the Crown. British law considered slaves to be property, and thus did not recognise marriage for slaves, family rights, education for slaves, or the right to religious practices such as holidays. British law denied all rights to freed slaves, with the exception of the right to a jury trial.

Otherwise, freed slaves had no right to own property, vote or hold office, or even enter some trades. The French Empire regulated slaves under the Code Noir Black Code which was in force throughout the empire, but which was based upon French practices in the Caribbean colonies. French law recognized slave marriages, but only with the consent of the master. French law, like Spanish law, gave legal recognition to marriages between European men and black or Creole women. French and Spanish laws were also significantly more lenient than British law in recognising manumission , or the ability of a slave to purchase their freedom and become a "freeman". Under French law, free slaves gained full rights to citizenship.

The French also extended limited legal rights to slaves, for example the right to own property, and the right to enter contracts. The exploitation of the Caribbean landscape dates back to the Spanish conquistadors starting in the s, who forced indigenous peoples held by Spanish settlers in encomienda to mine for gold. The more significant development came when Christopher Columbus wrote back to Spain that the islands were made for sugar development. Much like the Spanish exploited indigenous labour to mine gold, the 17th century brought a new series of oppressors in the form of the Dutch, the English, and the French.

By the middle of the 18th century sugar was Britain's largest import which made the Caribbean that much more important as a colony. Sugar was a luxury in Europe prior to the 18th century. It became widely popular in the 18th century, then graduated to becoming a necessity in the 19th century. This evolution of taste and demand for sugar as an essential food ingredient unleashed major economic and social changes. Following the emancipation of slaves in in the United Kingdom, many liberated Africans left their former masters. This created an economic chaos for British owners of Caribbean sugar cane plantations. The hard work in hot, humid farms required a regular, docile and low-waged labour force. The British looked for cheap labour. This they found initially in China and then mostly in India.

The British crafted a new legal system of forced labour, which in many ways resembled enslavement. Indians and southeast Asians began to replace Africans previously brought as slaves, under this indentured labour scheme to serve on sugarcane plantations across the British empire. The first ships carrying indentured labourers for sugarcane plantations left India in Over the next 70 years, numerous more ships brought indentured labourers to the Caribbean, as cheap and docile labour for harsh inhumane work. The slave labour and indentured labour - both in millions of people - were brought into Caribbean, as in other European colonies throughout the world.

The New World plantations were established in order to fulfill the growing needs of the Old World. The sugar plantations were built with the intention of exporting the sugar back to Britain which is why the British did not need to stimulate local demand for the sugar with wages. The new system in place however was similar to the previous as it was based on white capital and coloured labour. Unlike other countries, where there was an urban option for finding work, the Caribbean countries had money invested in agriculture and lacked any core industrial base. The products produced brought in no profits for the countries since they were sold to the colonial occupant buyer who controlled the price the products were sold at.

This resulted in extremely low wages with no potential for growth since the occupant nations had no intention of selling the products at a higher price to themselves. The result of this economic exploitation was a plantation dependence which saw the Caribbean nations possessing a large quantity of unskilled workers capable of performing agricultural tasks and not much else. After many years of colonial rule the nations also saw no profits brought into their country since the sugar production was controlled by the colonial rulers.

This left the Caribbean nations with little capital to invest towards enhancing any future industries unlike European nations which were developing rapidly and separating themselves technologically and economically from most impoverished nations of the world. The Caribbean region was war-torn throughout much of colonial history, but the wars were often based in Europe, with only minor battles fought in the Caribbean. Some wars, however, were borne of political turmoil in the Caribbean itself. Piracy in the Caribbean was often a tool used by the European empires to wage war unofficially against one another.

Gold plundered from Spanish ships and brought to Britain had a pivotal effect on European interest in colonising the region. The plantation system and the slave trade that enabled its growth led to regular slave resistance in many Caribbean islands throughout the colonial era. Resistance was made by escaping from the plantations altogether, and seeking refuge in the areas free of European settlement. Communities of escaped slaves, who were known as Maroons , banded together in heavily forested and mountainous areas of the Greater Antilles and some of the islands of the Lesser Antilles.

The spread of the plantations and European settlement often meant the end of many Maroon communities, although they survived on Saint Vincent and Dominica , and in the more remote mountainous areas of Jamaica , Hispaniola , Guadeloupe and Cuba. Violent resistance broke out periodically on the larger Caribbean islands. Many more conspiracies intended to create rebellions were discovered and ended by Europeans before they could materialise. Jamaica and Cuba in particular had many slave uprisings.

Such uprisings were brutally crushed by European forces. Haiti , the former French colony of Saint-Domingue on Hispaniola , was the first Caribbean nation to gain independence from European powers in This followed 13 years of war that started as a slave uprising in and quickly turned into the Haitian Revolution under the leadership of Toussaint l'Ouverture , where the former slaves defeated the French army twice , the Spanish army, and the British army, before becoming the world's first and oldest black republic , and also the second-oldest republic in the Western Hemisphere after the United States. This is additionally notable as being the only successful slave uprising in history.

The remaining two-thirds of Hispaniola were conquered by Haitian forces in In , the newly formed Dominican Republic declared its independence from Haiti. The nations bordering the Caribbean in Central America gained independence with the establishment of the First Mexican Empire —which at that time included the modern states of Mexico , Guatemala , El Salvador , Honduras , Nicaragua , and Costa Rica. The nations bordering the Caribbean in South America also gained independence from Spain in with the establishment of Gran Colombia —which comprised the modern states of Venezuela , Colombia , Ecuador , and Panama.

Cuba and Puerto Rico remained as Spanish colonies until the Spanish—American War in , after which Cuba attained its independence in , and Puerto Rico became an unincorporated territory of the United States, being the last of the Greater Antilles under colonial control. Between and most of the British-controlled Caribbean was integrated as the new West Indies Federation in an attempt to create a single unified future independent state—but it failed. The following former British Caribbean island colonies achieved independence in their own right; Jamaica , Trinidad and Tobago , Barbados , Bahamas , Grenada , Dominica , St.

Lucia , St. Vincent , Antigua and Barbuda , St. Kitts and Nevis As of the early 21st century, not all Caribbean islands have become independent. Several islands continue to have government ties with European countries, or with the United States. French overseas departments and territories include several Caribbean islands. Guadeloupe and Martinique are French overseas regions , a legal status that they have had since Their citizens are considered full French citizens with the same legal rights. In , the populations of St. Martin and St. After a bill was passed in the French Parliament , the new status took effect on 22 February Puerto Rico and the U. Virgin Islands are officially territories of the United States, but are sometimes referred to as "protectorates" of the United States.

They are self governing territories subject to Congress plenary powers over the territories. British overseas territories in the Caribbean include:. Along with Netherlands , they form the four constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Citizens of these islands have full Dutch citizenship. President James Monroe's State of the Union address in included a significant change to United States foreign policy which later became known as the Monroe Doctrine. In a key addition to this policy called the Roosevelt Corollary , the United States reserved the right to intervene in any nation of the Western Hemisphere it determined to be engaged in "chronic wrongdoing". This new expansionism coupled with the loss of relative power by the colonial nations enabled the United States to become a major influence in the region.

In the early part of the twentieth century this influence was extended by participation in The Banana Wars. Areas outside British or French control became known in Europe as "America's tropical empire". Victory in the Spanish—American War and the signing of the Platt amendment in ensured that the United States would have the right to interfere in Cuban political and economic affairs, militarily if necessary. After the Cuban revolution of relations deteriorated rapidly leading to the Bay of Pigs Invasion , the Cuban Missile Crisis and successive US attempts to destabilise the island. The US invaded and occupied Hispaniola present day Dominican Republic and Haiti for 19 years —34 , subsequently dominating the Haitian economy through aid and loan repayments.

In , 23, U. The base is one of five unified commands whose "area of responsibility" is Latin America and the Caribbean. The command is headquartered in Miami , Florida. As an arm of the economic and political network of the Americas, the influence of the United States stretches beyond a military context. A Marine heavy machine gunner monitors a position along the international neutral corridor in Santo Domingo, Eisenhower CVN off Haiti, From until the late s, the Soviet government upgraded Cuba's military capabilities, and Cuban leader Fidel Castro saw to it that Cuba assisted with the independence struggles of several countries across the world, most notably Angola and Mozambique in southern Africa, and the anti-imperialist struggles of countries such as Syria, Algeria, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Vietnam.

Cuba sent , troops to Angola and 70, additional civilian technicians and volunteers. The Cuban forces possessed 1, tanks, armoured vehicles and 1, artillery pieces. During the Ogaden War —78 in which Somalia attempted to invade an Ethiopia affected by civil war, Cuba deployed 18, troops along with armoured vehicles, artillery, T tanks, and MiGs to assist the Derg. Ethiopia and Cuba defeated Somalia on 9 March Cuba also directly participated in the negotiations between Angola and South Africa, again without consulting Moscow. Within two years, the Cold War was over and Cuba's foreign policy shifted away from military intervention. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin.

Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles often vary. The term Lesser Antilles is often used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles. The waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations. The region sits in the line of several major shipping routes with the Panama Canal connecting the western Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean. Lucayan Archipelago [b]. All islands at some point were, and a few still are, colonies of European nations; a few are overseas or dependent territories :. The independent countries formerly part of the B. The West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of Guyana , the only former British colony on the mainland of that continent.

In addition, these countries share the University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories such as Trinidad. The climate of the area is tropical , varying from tropical rainforest in some areas to tropical monsoon and tropical savanna in others. There are also some locations that are arid climates with considerable drought in some years, and the peaks of mountains tend to have cooler temperate climates. Rainfall varies with elevation, size and water currents, such as the cool upwellings that keep the ABC islands arid. Warm, moist trade winds blow consistently from the east, creating both rain forest and semi-arid climates across the region.

While the region generally is sunny much of the year, the wet season from May through November sees more frequent cloud cover both broken and overcast , while the dry season from December through April is more often clear to mostly sunny. Seasonal rainfall is divided into 'dry' and 'wet' seasons, with the latter six months of the year being wetter than the first half. Hurricane season is from June to November, but they occur more frequently in August and September and more common in the northern islands of the Caribbean.

Hurricanes that sometimes batter the region usually strike northwards of Grenada and to the west of Barbados. The principal hurricane belt arcs to the northwest of the island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean. A great example being recent events of Hurricane Irma devastating the island of Saint Martin during the hurricane season. The northern islands, like the Bahamas, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic, may be influenced by continental masses during winter months, such as cold fronts. The Caribbean islands have some of the most diverse ecosystems in the world. The animals, fungi, and plants have been classified as one of Conservation International 's biodiversity hotspots because of their exceptionally diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests , to tropical rainforest , to cactus scrublands.

For the fungi, there is a modern checklist based on nearly 90, records derived from specimens in reference collections, published accounts, and field observations. As its authors note, the work is far from exhaustive, and it is likely that the true total number of fungal species already known from the Caribbean is higher. For Cuba, species of fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the island; [58] for Puerto Rico , the number is species; [59] for the Dominican Republic , the number is species; [60] for Trinidad and Tobago, the number is species. Many of the ecosystems of the Caribbean islands have been devastated by deforestation , pollution, and human encroachment.

The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of giant owls and dwarf ground sloths. Examples of threatened animals include the Puerto Rican amazon , two species of solenodon giant shrews in Cuba and Hispaniola, and the Cuban crocodile. The region's coral reefs, which contain about 70 species of hard corals and between and species of reef-associated fishes [63] have undergone rapid decline in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are considered particularly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification.

Some Caribbean islands have terrain that Europeans found suitable for cultivation for agriculture. Tobacco was an important early crop during the colonial era, but was eventually overtaken by sugarcane production as the region's staple crop. Sugar was produced from sugarcane for export to Europe. Cuba and Barbados were historically the largest producers of sugar. The tropical plantation system thus came to dominate Caribbean settlement.

Other islands were found to have terrain unsuited for agriculture , for example Dominica , which remains heavily forested. However, they have salt pans that were exploited by the Dutch. Seawater was pumped into shallow ponds, producing coarse salt when the water evaporated. The natural environmental diversity of the Caribbean islands has led to recent growth in eco-tourism. This type of tourism is growing on islands lacking sandy beaches and dense human populations.

Epiphytes bromeliads, climbing palms in the rainforest of Dominica. A green and black poison frog, Dendrobates auratus. Caesalpinia pulcherrima , Guadeloupe. Costus speciosus , a marsh plant, Guadeloupe. An Atlantic ghost crab Ocypode quadrata in Martinique. Crescentia cujete , or calabash fruit, Martinique. Thalassoma bifasciatum bluehead wrasse fish , over Bispira brunnea social feather duster worms. Two Stenopus hispidus banded cleaner shrimp on a Xestospongia muta giant barrel sponge. A pair of Cyphoma signatum fingerprint cowry , off coastal Haiti.

The Martinique amazon , Amazona martinicana , is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae. Anastrepha suspensa , a Caribbean fruit fly. Hemidactylus mabouia , a tropical gecko, in Dominica Edited by: Taniya Brooks. The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around , immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. From to the population rose as slaves arrived from West Africa [70] such as the Kongo , Igbo , Akan , Fon and Yoruba as well as military prisoners from Ireland, who were deported during the Cromwellian reign in England. The population is estimated to have reached 2. Asians , especially those of Chinese , Indian descent, and Javanese Indonesians , form a significant minority in parts of the region.

Indians form a plurality of the population in Trinidad and Tobago , Guyana , and Suriname. Most of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers. The Spanish-speaking Caribbean populations are primarily of European, African, or racially mixed origins. Cuba has a mixed-race majority, along with a high European minority, and a significant population of African ancestry. The Dominican Republic has the largest mixed-race population, primarily descended from Europeans, West Africans , and Amerindians. Jamaica has a large African majority, in addition to a significant population of mixed racial background, and has minorities of Chinese , Europeans , Indians , Latinos , Jews , and Arabs. This is a result of years of importation of slaves and indentured laborers, and migration.

Most multi-racial Jamaicans refer to themselves as either mixed race or brown. Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrivals of Africans , Indians , Chinese , Arabs , Jews , Latinos , and Europeans along with the native indigenous Amerindians population. This multi-racial mix of the Caribbean has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include Mulatto - Creole , Mestizo , Pardo , Zambo , Dougla , Chindian , Afro-Asians , Eurasian , Cocoa panyols , and Asian Latinos.

Other languages such as Caribbean Hindustani , Chinese , Javanese , Arabic , Hmong , Amerindian languages , other African languages , other European languages , and other Indian languages can also be found. Christianity is the predominant religion in the Caribbean Trinidad Orisha , Afro-American religions , incl. Caribbean societies are very different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems.

From a political and economic perspective, regionalism serves to make Caribbean states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand, the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states.

Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a "blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways. The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique.

On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U. As a result, there has been a significant reduction in U. Another issue of due to the cold war in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean States due to the United States and European Union 's allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other. In counteraction, the European Union claimed that the U.

Much of the U. Some farmers have faced increased pressure to turn towards the cultivation of marijuana, which has a higher profit margin and fills the sizable demand for these narcotics in North America and Europe. Caribbean nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry.

One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the Caribbean Basin has been the Association of Caribbean States ACS. It was founded in July The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean. In recent history increasing numbers of countries in the regions have signed on to the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative in order to take advantage of the advancing Chinese market and access development loans at rates lower than traditional global institutions such as the International Monetary Fund or World Bank. However, based on proximity, these islands are sometimes grouped with the Windward Islands culturally and politically. Usually grouped with Northern American countries based on proximity; occasionally grouped with the Caribbean region culturally.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Region in eastern Central America composed of coasts and islands in the Caribbean Sea. This article is about the group of islands. For the inhabitants of the Caribbean and people of Caribbean descent, see Caribbean people. For the body of water surrounding the islands, see Caribbean Sea. For other uses, see Caribbean disambiguation. List of metropolitan areas in the Caribbean. Main article: List of Caribbean islands. Main article: History of the Caribbean. See also: Foreign interventions by the United States and American imperialism. Main article: Foreign interventions by Cuba. The Caribbean Plate. This section is an excerpt from Climate change in the Caribbean. See also: List of invasive marine fish in the Caribbean.

Main article: Indigenous peoples of the Caribbean. Main article: Languages of the Caribbean. See also: Religion in the Caribbean. Main article: Caribbean cuisine. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Caribbean portal Geography portal Islands portal North America portal. Retrieved November 9, Defining Creole.

Oxford University Press US. ISBN Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage. University of the West Indies Press. In Haines, Michael R. A Population History of North America. Cambridge University Press. OCLC Understanding the contemporary Caribbean. London, UK: Lynne Rienner. A Brief History of the Caribbean Revised ed. New York: Facts on File, Inc. A ConciseHistory of the Caribbean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 27 July National Geographic. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia ; " Archived from the original on 30 April Retrieved 20 February Island People: The Caribbean and the World.

New York: Alfred A. A Course in Phonetics. Cengage Learning. Lexico Dictionaries English. Archived from the original on 27 March Retrieved 5 May CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown link. Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America. Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 14 November United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 30 May

Her last goal John Winthrop: A Model Of Christian Charity to work at UAMS. The Pronatalism In The Caribbea region was war-torn throughout much of Pronatalism In The Caribbea history, but the wars were often based in Pronatalism In The Caribbea, with only minor battles fought in the Caribbean. Pronatalism In The Caribbea Ring of Fire.