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The Holocaust Revisionists

The answer is that the term The Holocaust Revisionists is misleading. Death The Holocaust Revisionists, a The Holocaust Revisionists by Errol The Holocaust Revisionists. ISBN " The Holocaust Revisionists Vidal-Naquet urges that denial of the Holocaust should not be called 'revisionism' The Holocaust Revisionists 'to deny history The Holocaust Revisionists not to revise it'. He was "familiar with historical evidence", she wrote, The Holocaust Revisionists "bends it until it conforms with his ideological leanings and political The Holocaust Revisionists. The The Holocaust Revisionists trials were The Holocaust Revisionists historically, but the events were still very recent, television was in The Holocaust Revisionists Ryanair Financial Ratio Analysis and not present, and there was The Holocaust Revisionists public impact. According to Ty Lewis Book Reportupon Irving's return to the The Holocaust Revisionists, he "vow[ed] to repeat views denying the Holocaust The Holocaust Revisionists led to his conviction" stating he felt "no need The Holocaust Revisionists longer to The Holocaust Revisionists remorse" for his Holocaust views. And the photographs of emaciated and dying Jews? The Holocaust Revisionists 11, The Holocaust Revisionists News — Telegraph Blogs.

Revising the Holocaust

They picked out Hungary , Poland , Croatia and Lithuania as the worst offenders. Holocaust denial is considered a serious societal problem in many places where it occurs and is illegal in several European countries and Israel. Holocaust deniers prefer to refer to their work as historical revisionism, and object to being referred to as " deniers ". That historians are constantly engaged in historical revision is certainly correct; however, what historians do is very different from this advertisement. Historical revision of major events Lipstadt writes that modern Holocaust denial draws its inspiration from various sources, including a school of thought which used an established method to question government policies.

In , Donald L. Niewyk gave some examples of how legitimate historical revisionism—the re-examination of accepted history and its updating with newly discovered, more accurate, or less-biased information—may be applied to the study of the Holocaust as new facts emerge to change the historical understanding of it:. With the main features of the Holocaust clearly visible to all but the willfully blind, historians have turned their attention to aspects of the story for which the evidence is incomplete or ambiguous. These are not minor matters by any means, but turn on such issues as Hitler's role in the event, Jewish responses to persecution, and reactions by onlookers both inside and outside Nazi-controlled Europe. In contrast, the Holocaust denial movement bases its approach on the predetermined idea that the Holocaust, as understood by mainstream historiography, did not occur.

Koenraad Elst writes:. Negationism means the denial of historical crimes against humanity. It is not a reinterpretation of known facts, but the denial of known facts. The term negationism has gained currency as the name of a movement to deny a specific crime against humanity, the Nazi genocide on the Jews in —45, also known as the Holocaust Greek: complete burning or the Shoah Hebrew: disaster. Negationism is mostly identified with the effort at re-writing history in such a way that the fact of the Holocaust is omitted.

Contrary to the hard-core version, soft-core denial is often not easily identifiable. Often it is tolerated, or even encouraged and reproduced in the mainstream, not only in Germany. Scholars have only recently begun to unravel this disturbing phenomenon. Manfred Gerstenfeld discusses Holocaust trivialization in an article published in It includes chapters on Holocaust trivialization and contrived comparisons, such as the infamous "atomic Holocaust", "Babycaust," "Holocaust of abortion", "red Holocaust" or "biological Holocaust. Lawrence Douglas argues that denial was invented by the perpetrators and employed as a means of genocide.

For example, trucks of Zyklon B were labeled with Red Cross symbols and victims were told that they would be " resettled ". Douglas also cites the Posen speeches as an example of denial while genocide was ongoing, with Himmler referring to the Holocaust as "an unnamed and never to be named page of glory". Denial of the mass murder of gas chambers, according to Douglas, repeats the Nazi efforts to persuade the victims that they were actually harmless showers. While the Second World War was still underway, the Nazis had already formed a contingency plan that if defeat was imminent they would carry out the total destruction of German records. Heinrich Himmler instructed his camp commandants to destroy records, crematoria, and other signs of mass extermination.

In occupied France , the situation with respect to preserving war records was not much better, partly as a result of French state secrecy rules dating back to well before the war aimed at protecting the French government and the state from embarrassing revelations, and partly to avoid culpability. For example, at Liberation , the Prefecture of Police destroyed nearly all of the massive archive of Jewish arrest and deportation.

One of the earliest efforts to save historical record of the Holocaust occurred during the war, in France, where Drancy internment camp records were carefully preserved and turned over to the new National Office for Veterans and Victims of War ; however, the bureau then held them in secret, refusing to release copies later, even to the Center of Contemporary Jewish Documentation CDJC. In , Isaac Schneersohn , anticipating the need for a center to document and preserve the memory of the persecution for historical reasons and also support claims post-war, gathered together 40 representatives from Jewish organizations in Grenoble which was under Italian occupation at the time [27] in order to form a centre de documentation.

In , General Dwight D. Eisenhower , Supreme Allied Commander, anticipated that someday an attempt would be made to recharacterize the documentation of Nazi crimes as propaganda and took steps against it. The Nuremberg trials took place in Germany after the war in — The stated aim was to dispense justice in retribution for atrocities of the German government. This Allied intention to administer justice post-war was first announced in in the Declaration on German Atrocities in Occupied Europe and reiterated at the Yalta Conference and at Berlin in The Nuremberg trials were important historically, but the events were still very recent, television was in its infancy and not present, and there was little public impact.

There were isolated moments of limited public awareness from Hollywood films such as The Diary of Anne Frank or the Judgment at Nuremberg which had some newsreel footage of actual scenes from liberated Nazi concentration camps including scenes of piles of naked corpses laid out in rows and bulldozed into large pits, which was considered exceptionally graphic for the time. Public awareness changed when the Eichmann trial riveted the world's attention fifteen years after Nuremberg. In , the Israeli government captured Adolf Eichmann in Argentina and brought him to Israel to stand trial for war crimes. Chief prosecutor Gideon Hausner 's intentions were not only to demonstrate Eichmann's guilt personally but to present material about the entire Holocaust, thus producing a comprehensive record.

The Israeli government arranged for the trial to have prominent media coverage. In the immediate aftermath of the war, prior to the extensive documentation efforts by the Allied forces, a sense of disbelief caused many to deny the initial reports of the Holocaust. During the s, the Nazi government used this propaganda against the British, claiming allegations of concentration camps were malicious lies put forward by the British government, and historians Joachim Neander and Randal Marlin note that this story "encouraged later disbelief when early reports circulated about the Holocaust under Hitler".

The Neo-Nazi movement has been revitalized by Holocaust denial. Small but vocal numbers of Neo-Nazis realized that recreation of a Hitlerite-style regime may be impossible, but a replica might be produced in the future; the rehabilitation of Nazism, they concluded, required the discrediting of the Holocaust. Harry Elmer Barnes , at one time a mainstream American historian, assumed a Holocaust-denial stance in his later years. Starting in , Barnes worked closely with the Centre for the Study of the Causes of the War , a German government-funded think tank whose sole purpose was to disseminate the official government position that Germany was the victim of Allied aggression in and that the Versailles Treaty was morally invalid.

Barnes claimed that there were two false claims made about World War II, namely that Germany started the war in , and the Holocaust, which Barnes claimed did not happen. In his pamphlet, Revisionism and Brainwashing , Barnes claimed that there was a "lack of any serious opposition or concerted challenge to the atrocity stories and other modes of defamation of German national character and conduct". Barnes cited the French Holocaust denier Paul Rassinier , whom Barnes called a "distinguished French historian" who had exposed the "exaggerations of the atrocity stories".

Though Der erzwungene Krieg was primarily concerned with the origins of World War II, it also down-played or justified the effects of Nazi antisemitic measures in the pre period. Rassinier was himself a concentration camp survivor he was held in Buchenwald for having helped French Jews escape the Nazis , and modern-day deniers continue to cite his works as scholarly research that questions the accepted facts of the Holocaust. Austin App , a La Salle University medieval English literature professor, is considered the first major mainstream American holocaust denier.

He published numerous articles, letters, and books on Holocaust denial, quickly building a loyal following. App's work inspired the Institute for Historical Review , a California center founded in whose sole task is the denial of the Holocaust. The publication of Arthur Butz 's The Hoax of the Twentieth Century : The case against the presumed extermination of European Jewry in ; and David Irving 's Hitler's War in brought other similarly inclined individuals into the fold. In December and January , Robert Faurisson , a French professor of literature at the University of Lyon , wrote two letters to Le Monde claiming that the gas chambers used by the Nazis to exterminate the Jews did not exist.

A colleague of Faurisson, Jean-Claude Pressac , who initially shared Faurisson's views, later became convinced of the Holocaust's evidence while investigating documents at Auschwitz in He published his conclusions along with much of the underlying evidence in his book, Auschwitz: Technique and operation of the gas chambers. Henry Bienen , the former president of Northwestern University, has described Arthur Butz's view of the Holocaust as an "embarrassment to Northwestern".

In the American far-right activist Willis Carto founded the Institute for Historical Review IHR , an organization dedicated to publicly challenging the commonly accepted history of the Holocaust. The IHR republished most of Barnes's writings, which had been out of print since his death. While it included articles on other topics and sold books by mainstream historians, the majority of material published and distributed by IHR was devoted to questioning the facts surrounding the Holocaust. Mermelstein, in turn, submitted a notarized account of his internment at Auschwitz and how he witnessed Nazi guards ushering his mother and two sisters and others towards as he learned later gas chamber number five. Despite this, the IHR refused to pay the reward.

Represented by public interest attorney William John Cox , Mermelstein subsequently sued the IHR in the Superior Court of Los Angeles County for breach of contract , anticipatory repudiation , libel , injurious denial of established fact , intentional infliction of emotional distress , and declaratory relief. On October 9, , both parties in the Mermelstein case filed motions for summary judgment in consideration of which Judge Thomas T. Johnson of the Superior Court of Los Angeles County took " judicial notice of the fact that Jews were gassed to death at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland during the summer of ," [66] [67] judicial notice meaning that the court treated the gas chambers as common knowledge, and therefore did not require evidence that the gas chambers existed.

On August 5, , Judge Robert A. Wenke entered a judgment based upon the Stipulation for Entry of Judgment agreed upon by the parties on July 22, Mel Mermelstein, a survivor of Auschwitz-Birkenau and Buchenwald, and all other survivors of Auschwitz" for "pain, anguish and suffering" caused to them. Indeed, the IHR as such has no 'position' on any specific event Evans wrote that the Institute's acknowledgment "that a relatively small number of Jews were killed" was a means to draw attention away from its primary beliefs, i.

In , James Keegstra , a Canadian high-school teacher, was charged under the Canadian Criminal Code for "promoting hatred against an identifiable group by communicating anti-Semitic statements to his students". During class, he would describe Jews as a people of profound evil who had "created the Holocaust to gain sympathy. Keegstra was charged under s The court rejected the argument, advanced by Keegstra and his lawyer, Doug Christie , that promoting hatred is a constitutionally protected freedom of expression as per s 2 b of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Keegstra appealed to the Alberta Court of Appeal. That court agreed with Keegstra, and he was acquitted. The Crown then appealed the case to the Supreme Court of Canada , which ruled by a 4—3 majority that promoting hatred could be justifiably restricted under s 1 of the Charter. The Supreme Court restored Keegstra's conviction. In , he was tried in R. Zundel and convicted under a "false news" law and sentenced to 15 months imprisonment by an Ontario court for "disseminating and publishing material denying the Holocaust". The trial included, as witnesses for the defence, Fred A. Leuchter , David Irving and Robert Faurisson. The pseudo-scientific Leuchter report was presented as a defence document and was published in Canada in by Zundel's Samisdat Publishers, and in Britain in by Irving's Focal Point Publishing.

His conviction was overturned in when the Supreme Court of Canada declared the "false news" law unconstitutional. In , Bradley R. Bradley Smith took his message to college students—with little success. He said, "I don't want to spend time with adults anymore, I want to go to students. They are superficial. They are empty vessels to be filled. And I wanted to make it as simple as possible, and to set it up in a way that could not really be debated. Some of these ads arguing that the Holocaust never happened ran without comment; others generated op-ed pieces by professors and students". It was quickly criticized and the editor issued an apology, saying publishing the ad was a mistake. The German philosopher and historian Ernst Nolte , starting in the s, advanced a set of theories, which though not denying the Holocaust appeared to flirt with an Italian Holocaust denier, Carlo Mattogno , as a serious historian.

The British historian Ian Kershaw has argued that Nolte was operating on the borderlines of Holocaust denial with his implied claim that the "negative myth" of the Third Reich was created by Jewish historians, his allegations of the domination of Holocaust scholarship by "biased" Jewish historians, and his statements that one should withhold judgment on Holocaust deniers, whom Nolte takes considerable pains to stress are not exclusively Germans or fascists. In a interview, Nolte implied that there was something to the Leuchter report : "If the revisionists [Holocaust deniers] and Leuchter among them have made it clear to the public that even 'Auschwitz' must be an object of scientific inquiry and controversy then they should be given credit for this.

Even if it finally turned out that the number of victims was even greater and the procedures were even more horrific than has been assumed until now. The British historian Richard J. Evans in his book In Hitler's Shadow expressed the view that Nolte's reputation as a scholar was in ruins as a result of these and other controversial statements on his part. Historians such as the German Ernst Nolte are, in some ways, even more dangerous than the deniers. Nolte is an anti-Semite of the first order, who attempts to rehabilitate Hitler by saying that he was no worse than Stalin; but he is careful not to deny the Holocaust. Holocaust-deniers make Nolte's life more comfortable. They have, with their radical argumentation, pulled the center a little more to their side.

Consequently, a less radical extremist, such as Nolte, finds himself closer to the middle ground, which makes him more dangerous. In , the American historian Arno J. Some mainstream Holocaust historians have labeled Mayer a denier. The Israeli historian Yehuda Bauer wrote that Mayer "popularizes the nonsense that the Nazis saw in Marxism and Bolshevism their main enemy, and the Jews unfortunately got caught up in this; when he links the destruction of the Jews to the ups and downs of German warfare in the Soviet Union, in a book that is so cocksure of itself that it does not need a proper scientific apparatus, he is really engaging in a much more subtle form of Holocaust denial".

Defenders of Mayer argue that his statement that "Sources for the study of the gas chambers are at once rare and unreliable" has been taken out of context, particularly by Holocaust deniers. The focus on so-called Allied atrocities during the war has been a theme in Holocaust denial literature, particularly in countries where outright denial of the Holocaust is illegal. In , Martin Broszat , in a review of David Irving 's book Hitler's War , maintained that the picture of World War II drawn by Irving was done in a such way to imply moral equivalence between the actions of the Axis and Allied states with both sides equally guilty of terrible crimes, leading to Hitler's "fanatical, destructive will to annihilate" being downgraded to being "no longer an exceptional phenomenon".

According to James Najarian, Holocaust deniers working for the Institute for Historical Review are not trained in history and "put out sham scholarly articles in the mock-academic publication, the Journal of Historical Review ". These facts, however, are strung by what Najarian calls "fabricated decorum" and are re-interpreted for their use. For example, they pay particular attention to inconsistencies in numbers.

Holocaust denial propaganda in all forms has been shown to influence the audiences that it reaches. In fact, even the well-educated—that is, college graduates and current university students alike—are susceptible to such propaganda when it is presented before them. This stems from the growing disbelief that audiences feel after being exposed to such information, especially since Holocaust witnesses themselves are decreasing in number. Linda M. Yelland and William F. Stone, in particular, show that Denial essays decrease readers' belief in the Holocaust, regardless of their prior Holocaust awareness.

Gamal Abdel Nasser , the President of Egypt, told a German newspaper in that "no person, not even the most simple one, takes seriously the lie of the six million Jews that were murdered [in the Holocaust]. Denials of the Holocaust have been promoted by various Middle Eastern figures and media. Holocaust denial is sponsored by some Middle Eastern governments, including Iran [] and Syria. Prominent figures from the Middle East have rarely made publicized visits to Auschwitz — Israel's Arab community being the exception.

In , Hadash MK Mohammed Barakeh visited, following a previous visit of two other Arab-Israeli lawmakers, and a group of about Arab-Israeli writers and clerics in Individuals from the Palestinian Authority , Hamas , and a number of Palestinian groups have all engaged in various aspects of Holocaust denial. Hamas have promoted Holocaust denial; [] Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi held that the Holocaust never occurred, that Zionists were behind the action of Nazis, and that Zionists funded Nazism.

Abbas claimed that the number of deaths has been exaggerated for political purposes. This led them to emphasize this figure [six million] in order to gain the solidarity of international public opinion with Zionism. Many scholars have debated the figure of six million and reached stunning conclusions—fixing the number of Jewish victims at only a few hundred thousand. In his March interview with Haaretz , Abbas stated, "I wrote in detail about the Holocaust and said I did not want to discuss numbers.

I quoted an argument between historians in which various numbers of casualties were mentioned. One wrote there were 12 million victims and another wrote there were , I have no desire to argue with the figures. The Holocaust was a terrible, unforgivable crime against the Jewish nation, a crime against humanity that cannot be accepted by humankind. The Holocaust was a terrible thing and nobody can claim I denied it. In Arab eyes disbelief in the very happening of the Shoah is not hate of Jews embedded in the denial of the Shoah in the West but rather a form of protest.

Arabs not believing in the event of Shoah intend to express strong objection to the portrayal of the Jews as the ultimate victim and to the underrating of the Palestinians as a victim. They deny Israel's right to exist as a Jewish state that the Shoah gives legitimacy to. Arab disbelief in the Shoah is a component of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, unlike the ideological and anti-Semitic denial of the Holocaust and the desire to escape guilt in the West.

Former Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad frequently denied the Holocaust, [] formally 'questioning' the reliability of the historical evidence, [] although he on occasion confirmed belief in it. He said:. They have fabricated a legend, under the name of the Massacre of the Jews, and they hold it higher than God himself, religion itself and the prophets themselves If somebody in their country questions God, nobody says anything, but if somebody denies the myth of the massacre of Jews, the Zionist loudspeakers and the governments in the pay of Zionism will start to scream. The remarks immediately provoked international controversy as well as swift condemnation from government officials in Israel, Europe, and the United States. All six political parties in the German parliament signed a joint resolution condemning Ahmadinejad's Holocaust denial.

On December 11, , the Iranian state-sponsored " International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust " began to widespread condemnation. I have visited the Nazi camps in Eastern Europe. I think it is exaggerated. In , in an interview with CNN, newly elected Iranian President Hassan Rouhani condemned the Holocaust, stating: "I can tell you that any crime that happens in history against humanity, including the crime the Nazis created towards the Jews as well as non-Jews is reprehensible and condemnable. Whatever criminality they committed against the Jews, we condemn.

In his official Nowruz address, Supreme Leader of Iran Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei questioned the veracity of the Holocaust, remarking that "The Holocaust is an event whose reality is uncertain and if it has happened, it's uncertain how it has happened. In , the House of Cartoon and the Sarcheshmeh Cultural Complex in Iran organized the Second International Holocaust Cartoon Competition , [] a competition in which artists were encouraged to submit cartoons on the theme of Holocaust denial.

Hamshahri , a popular Iranian newspaper, held a similar contest in A legal suit for slander was brought against him. During the trial in September, Baykam exposed the real author of the book as Adnan Oktar. In some Eastern European countries, such as Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, and Romania, Holocaust deniers do not deny the very fact of mass murder of Jews, but deny some national or regional elements of the Holocaust.

According to Zvi Gitelman , Soviet writers tended either to ignore or downplay the Holocaust, treating it as one small part of a larger phenomenon of 20 million dead Soviet citizens during the Great Patriotic War. According to Gitelman, Soviet authorities were concerned about raising the consciousness of Soviet Jews and retarding their assimilation to the greater Soviet population. The Holocaust also raised the issue of collaboration with the Nazi occupiers, an uncomfortable topic for Soviet historiography.

In , the United States Department of State warned about "the glorification of the Ustasha regime and denial of the Holocaust" in Croatia, citing the placement of a plaque with the Ustasha-era salute ' Za dom spremni ' on the grounds of a concentration camp memorial site, far-right rallies and the concert of the controversial band Thompson among other events. The Arrow Cross Party committed numerous crimes and killed or deported Jews. In Slovakia, some anti-communist writers claim that Jozef Tiso was a savior of Jews or that the Slovak State was not responsible for the Holocaust in Slovakia. The post-Soviet radical right activists do not question the existence of Nazi death camps or Jewish ghettos. However, they deny the participation of local population in anti-Jewish pogroms or the contribution of national paramilitary organizations in capture and execution of Jews.

Elements of the extreme far-right in France have begun to build on each other's negationist arguments, which often span beyond the Holocaust to cover a range of antisemitic views, incorporating attempts to tie the Holocaust to the Biblical massacre of the Canaanites , critiques of Zionism, and other material fanning what has been called a "conspiratorial Judeo-phobia" designed to legitimize and "banalize" antisemitism.

In Belgium in , Roeland Raes , the ideologue and vice-president of one of the country's largest political parties, the Vlaams Blok , gave an interview on Dutch TV where he cast doubt over the number of Jews murdered by the Nazis during the Holocaust. In the same interview, he questioned the scale of the Nazis' use of gas chambers and the authenticity of Anne Frank 's diary. In response to the media assault following the interview, Raes was forced to resign his position but vowed to remain active within the party. Immediately afterwards, it legally reformed under the new name Vlaams Belang Flemish Interest with the same leaders and the same membership.

They were charged with Volksverhetzung , "incitement to hatred". The pair had published video clips on YouTube of their denial of the genocide of Jews. In the clips, Alfred Schaefer said that Jews wanted to destroy Germans, blamed them for starting both World Wars, and referred to the Holocaust as a "Jewish fantasy". She was sentenced to ten months while Alfred Schaefer, also convicted, received a sentence of three years and two months. Speaking in light of the survey's findings, Karen Pollock , chief executive of the Holocaust Educational Trust , said: "One person questioning the truth of the Holocaust is one too many, and so it is up to us to redouble our efforts to ensure future generations know that it did happen and become witnesses to one of the darkest episodes in our history.

Participants were incentivised to complete the online survey by shopping vouchers encouraging speedy answering, and the principal question was a "reverse question" with most participants having to give the reverse answer to surrounding questions requiring careful answering. Another question asked how many Jewish people had been murdered in the holocaust with only 0. Japanese Holocaust denial first appeared in and reached its peak in with the publication in February by the Japanese magazine Marco Polo [ ja ] , a ,circulation monthly published by Bungei Shunju , of a Holocaust denial article by physician Masanori Nishioka [] which stated: "The ' Holocaust ' is a fabrication.

There were no execution gas chambers in Auschwitz or in any other concentration camp. Today, what is displayed as 'gas chambers' at the remains of the Auschwitz camp in Poland are a post-war fabrication by the Polish communist regime or by the Soviet Union , which controlled the country. Not once, neither at Auschwitz nor in any territory controlled by the Germans during the Second World War, was there 'mass murder of Jews' in 'gas chambers. Scholarly response to Holocaust denial can be roughly divided into three categories.

Some academics refuse to engage Holocaust deniers or their arguments at all, on grounds that doing so lends them unwarranted legitimacy. Their commitment is to an ideology and their 'findings' are shaped to support it. In December the American Historical Association , the oldest and largest society of historians and teachers of history in the United States, issued the following statement: The American Historical Association Council strongly deplores the publicly reported attempts to deny the fact of the Holocaust. No serious historian questions that the Holocaust took place.

This followed a strong reaction by many of its members and commentary in the press against a near-unanimous decision that the AHA had made in May that studying the significance of the Holocaust should be encouraged. The association's May statement was in response to an incident where certain of its members had questioned the reality of the Holocaust. The December declaration is a reversal of the AHA's earlier stance that the association should not set a precedent by certifying historical facts. Literary theorist Jean Baudrillard described Holocaust denial as "part of the extermination itself". Never before has a tragedy elicited so much witness from the killers, from the victims and even from the bystanders—millions of pieces here in the museum what you have, all other museums, archives in the thousands, in the millions.

Deborah Lipstadt's book, Denying the Holocaust , sharply criticized various Holocaust deniers, including British author David Irving , for deliberately misrepresenting evidence to justify their preconceived conclusions. In the book, Lipstadt named Irving as "one of the more dangerous" Holocaust deniers, because he was a published author, and was viewed by some as a legitimate military historian. He was "familiar with historical evidence", she wrote, and "bends it until it conforms with his ideological leanings and political agenda". In , Irving filed a libel suit against Lipstadt and her publisher, Penguin Books.

American historian Christopher Browning , an expert witness for the defense, wrote a comprehensive essay for the court summarizing the voluminous evidence for the reality of the Holocaust, and under cross-examination, effectively countered all of Irving's principal arguments to the contrary. Evans , another defense expert witness, spent two years examining Irving's writings and confirmed his misrepresentations, including evidence that he had knowingly used forged documents as source material. After a two-month trial in London the trial judge, Justice Charles Gray , issued a page ruling against Irving, which referred to him as a "Holocaust denier" and "right-wing pro-Nazi polemicist.

Ken McVay , an American resident in Canada, was disturbed by the efforts of organizations like the Simon Wiesenthal Center to suppress the speech of the Holocaust deniers, feeling that it was better to confront them openly than to try to censor them. On the Usenet newsgroup alt. He founded the Nizkor Project to expose the activities of the Holocaust deniers, who responded to McVay with personal attacks, slander, and death threats.

A number of public figures have spoken out against Holocaust denial. In , UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan said: "Remembering is a necessary rebuke to those who say the Holocaust never happened or has been exaggerated. Holocaust denial is the work of bigots; we must reject their false claims whenever, wherever and by whomever they are made. In July , Iran's then president-elect Hassan Rohani described Ahmadinejad's remarks about the Holocaust and Israel as " hate rhetoric" [] and in September Rohani stated that "The Nazis carried out a massacre that cannot be denied, especially against the Jewish people" and "The massacre by the Nazis was condemnable.

We never want to sit by side with the Nazis.. They committed a crime against Jews — which is a crime against.. Critics of Holocaust denial also include members of the Auschwitz SS. I would like you to believe me. I saw the gas chambers. I saw the crematoria. I saw the open fires. I was on the ramp when the selections took place. I would like you to believe that these atrocities happened because I was there. The European Parliament voted in favor of a resolution calling for member states to adopt the definition on June 1, The Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity defines Holocaust denial as "a new form of anti-Semitism, but one that hinges on age-old motifs".

According to Walter Reich, psychiatrist and then a senior scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars , one-time director of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum , and now professor of international affairs at George Washington University :. The primary motivation for most deniers is anti-Semitism, and for them the Holocaust is an infuriatingly inconvenient fact of history. After all, the Holocaust has generally been recognized as one of the most terrible crimes that ever took place, and surely the very emblem of evil in the modern age.

If that crime was a direct result of anti-Semitism taken to its logical end, then anti-Semitism itself, even when expressed in private conversation, is inevitably discredited among most people. What better way to rehabilitate anti-Semitism, make anti-Semitic arguments seem once again respectable in civilized discourse and even make it acceptable for governments to pursue anti-Semitic policies than by convincing the world that the great crime for which anti-Semitism was blamed simply never happened—indeed, that it was nothing more than a frame-up invented by the Jews, and propagated by them through their control of the media?

What better way, in short, to make the world safe again for anti-Semitism than by denying the Holocaust? The French historian Pierre Vidal-Naquet described the motivation of deniers more succinctly, explaining, "One revives the dead in order the better to strike the living. The key claims, which cause Holocaust denial to differ from established fact, are: [7] [8].

Holocaust denial is widely viewed as failing to adhere to principles for the treatment of evidence that mainstream historians as well as scholars in other fields regard as basic to rational inquiry. The Holocaust was well documented by the bureaucracy of the Nazi government itself. According to researchers Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman , there is a "convergence of evidence" that proves that the Holocaust happened. This evidence includes: []. Much of the controversy surrounding the claims of Holocaust deniers centers on the methods used to present arguments that the Holocaust allegedly never happened as commonly accepted.

Numerous accounts have been given by Holocaust deniers including evidence presented in court cases of claimed facts and evidence; however, independent research has shown these claims to be based upon flawed research, biassed statements, or even deliberately falsified evidence. Opponents of Holocaust denial have documented numerous instances in which such evidence was altered or manufactured see Nizkor Project and David Irving. Dovid Katz, Editor, www. The "Double Genocide" debate is prompted by a "movement in Europe that believes the crimes—morally, ethically—of Nazism and Communism are absolutely equal, and that those of us who don't think they're absolutely equal, are perhaps soft on Communism," argued Dovid Katz, Editor, www.

At a 7 March Kennan Institute discussion, Katz explained the evolution of the debate, the actions of institutions that subscribe to the theory, and the impact they have on European politics today. The speaker noted that the region's Jewish population was particularly hard hit—in all of Europe, the percentage of the Jewish populations killed during World War II was highest in the Baltic States, because of the massive voluntary participation by locals in the actual killings. The "Double Genocide" movement is a relatively recent initiative though rooted in older apologetics regarding the Holocaust that seeks to create a moral equivalence between Soviet atrocities committed against the Baltic region and the Holocaust in European history.

Since joining the EU, the Baltic States have attempted to downplay their nations' massive collaboration with the Nazis and to enlist the West in revising history in the direction of Double Genocide thinking. An important part of that effort has been for lawmakers to highlight the crimes committed by Soviets in the Baltic region during and after World War II. In , lawmakers from the Baltic States, , among other new-accession European Union states, played a pivotal role in a January conference in Tallinn, Estonia, and then in June, , in proclamation of the "Prague Declaration" which attracted wider support. A major criticism of this movement is that Soviet crimes, while terrible, should not be equated to the crimes Nazi Germany inflicted throughout Europe, particularly genocide.

Critics of the "Double Genocide" theory argue that its supporters are obfuscating and downgrading the Holocaust, without necessarily denying a single death. Conversely, those who subscribe to the idea of "Double Genocide" perceive their critics as sympathetic to Soviet rule, culturally pro-Russian, or soft on Communism. Katz noted that the "Double Genocide" initiatives promote the anti-Communist cultural memory of Soviet occupation over the anti-fascist memory of Nazi Germany's invasion. More ominously, according to Katz, is the role Jews play in this revised history. Under "Double Genocide," Jews now extinct over vast swathes of Eastern European territory , cease to be seen as the victims of Nazi extermination, and instead are portrayed as among, if not the leading, perpetrators of Soviet occupation.

The Museum is free and open six days a week. View the full schedule. This minute film, available in multiple languages, provides a concise overview of the Holocaust and those involved. The ceremony at the US Capitol, featuring a candle-lighting and names reading, is happening now. Join us right now to watch a live interview with a survivor, followed by a question-and-answer session.

The Museum's commemoration ceremony, including remarks by the German ambassador and a Holocaust survivor, is happening now. What is Genocide?

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