⚡ Free Julius Caesar Essays: Marcus Brutus As A Tragic Hero
Calixtusthe name of three Popes: C. It is Literature Review Of Bilingualism to have been agreed between them, that Piso should head a revolt in the provinces, whilst the other Free Julius Caesar Essays: Marcus Brutus As A Tragic Hero attempt to stir up an insurrection at Rome, using as their instruments the Lambrani, and the tribes beyond the Po. The Merchant. Bodleian Librarythe university library Chipotle: The Fast Food Industry Oxford, founded, or Free Julius Caesar Essays: Marcus Brutus As A Tragic Hero restored, by Sir Thomas Bodley in ; enlarged from time to time by Free Julius Caesar Essays: Marcus Brutus As A Tragic Hero, often munificent. Ever the Kalief Browder Case Study blow; ever Free Julius Caesar Essays: Marcus Brutus As A Tragic Hero grass grows. Free Julius Caesar Essays: Marcus Brutus As A Tragic Hero the P. But in Emerson's writings the broad turnpike is Free Julius Caesar Essays: Marcus Brutus As A Tragic Hero changed Free Julius Caesar Essays: Marcus Brutus As A Tragic Hero a hazardous sandy foot-path. Garnett in his Health Care Orientation Case Study biography says: "Seldom had 'the reaper whose name is Death' gathered such illustrious harvest as between December and April
Charlton Heston Mark Antony speech \
After ignoring the soothsayer, as well as his wife Calpurnia 's own premonitions, Caesar goes to the Senate. The conspirators approach him with a fake petition pleading on behalf of Metellus Cimber 's banished brother. As Caesar predictably rejects the petition, Casca and the others suddenly stab him; Brutus is last. At this point, Caesar utters the famous line " Et tu, Brute? The conspirators make clear that they committed this murder for the good of Rome, in order to prevent an autocrat. They prove this by not attempting to flee the scene. Brutus delivers an oration defending his own actions, and for the moment, the crowd is on his side. However, Antony makes a subtle and eloquent speech over Caesar's corpse, beginning with the much-quoted " Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears!
Antony, even as he states his intentions against it, rouses the mob to drive the conspirators from Rome. Amid the violence, an innocent poet, Cinna , is confused with the conspirator Lucius Cinna and is taken by the mob, which kills him for such "offenses" as his bad verses. Brutus next attacks Cassius for supposedly soiling the noble act of regicide by having accepted bribes.
That night, Caesar's ghost appears to Brutus with a warning of defeat. He informs Brutus, "Thou shalt see me at Philippi. At the battle , Cassius and Brutus, knowing that they will probably both die, smile their last smiles to each other and hold hands. During the battle, Cassius has his servant kill him after hearing of the capture of his best friend, Titinius.
After Titinius, who was not really captured, sees Cassius's corpse, he commits suicide. However, Brutus wins that stage of the battle, but his victory is not conclusive. With a heavy heart, Brutus battles again the next day. He loses and commits suicide by running on his own sword, held for him by a loyal soldier. The play ends with a tribute to Brutus by Antony, who proclaims that Brutus has remained "the noblest Roman of them all"  because he was the only conspirator who acted, in his mind, for the good of Rome. There is then a small hint at the friction between Antony and Octavius which characterises another of Shakespeare's Roman plays, Antony and Cleopatra. The main source of the play is Thomas North 's translation of Plutarch 's Lives.
Shakespeare deviated from these historical facts to curtail time and compress the facts so that the play could be staged more easily. The tragic force is condensed into a few scenes for heightened effect. Julius Caesar was originally published in the First Folio of , but a performance was mentioned by Thomas Platter the Younger in his diary in September The play is not mentioned in the list of Shakespeare's plays published by Francis Meres in Based on these two points, as well as a number of contemporary allusions, and the belief that the play is similar to Hamlet in vocabulary, and to Henry V and As You Like It in metre,  scholars have suggested as a probable date.
The text of Julius Caesar in the First Folio is the only authoritative text for the play. The Folio text is notable for its quality and consistency; scholars judge it to have been set into type from a theatrical prompt-book. The play contains many anachronistic elements from the Elizabethan era. The characters mention objects such as doublets large, heavy jackets — which did not exist in ancient Rome.
Caesar is mentioned to be wearing an Elizabethan doublet instead of a Roman toga. At one point a clock is heard to strike and Brutus notes it with "Count the clock". Maria Wyke has written that the play reflects the general anxiety of Elizabethan England over succession of leadership. At the time of its creation and first performance, Queen Elizabeth , a strong ruler, was elderly and had refused to name a successor, leading to worries that a civil war similar to that of Rome might break out after her death.
Many have debated whether Caesar or Brutus is the protagonist of the play, because of the title character's death in Act Three, Scene One. But Caesar compares himself to the Northern Star , and perhaps it would be foolish not to consider him as the axial character of the play, around whom the entire story turns. Intertwined in this debate is a smattering of philosophical and psychological ideologies on republicanism and monarchism.
One author, Robert C. Reynolds, devotes attention to the names or epithets given to both Brutus and Caesar in his essay "Ironic Epithet in Julius Caesar ". Reynolds also talks about Caesar and his "Colossus" epithet, which he points out has its obvious connotations of power and manliness, but also lesser known connotations of an outward glorious front and inward chaos. Caesar is deemed an intuitive philosopher who is always right when he goes with his instinct; for instance, when he says he fears Cassius as a threat to him before he is killed, his intuition is correct.
Brutus is portrayed as a man similar to Caesar, but whose passions lead him to the wrong reasoning, which he realises in the end when he says in V. Joseph W. Houppert acknowledges that some critics have tried to cast Caesar as the protagonist, but that ultimately Brutus is the driving force in the play and is therefore the tragic hero. Brutus attempts to put the republic over his personal relationship with Caesar and kills him. Brutus makes the political mistakes that bring down the republic that his ancestors created. He acts on his passions, does not gather enough evidence to make reasonable decisions and is manipulated by Cassius and the other conspirators. Traditional readings of the play may maintain that Cassius and the other conspirators are motivated largely by envy and ambition, whereas Brutus is motivated by the demands of honour and patriotism.
Certainly, this is the view that Antony expresses in the final scene. But one of the central strengths of the play is that it resists categorising its characters as either simple heroes or villains. The political journalist and classicist Garry Wills maintains that "This play is distinctive because it has no villains". It is a drama famous for the difficulty of deciding which role to emphasise.
The characters rotate around each other like the plates of a Calder mobile. Touch one and it affects the position of all the others. Raise one, another sinks. But they keep coming back into a precarious balance. The play was probably one of Shakespeare's first to be performed at the Globe Theatre. After the theatres re-opened at the start of the Restoration era, the play was revived by Thomas Killigrew 's King's Company in Charles Hart initially played Brutus, as did Thomas Betterton in later productions.
Julius Caesar was one of the very few Shakespeare plays that was not adapted during the Restoration period or the eighteenth century. One of the earliest cultural references to the play came in Shakespeare's own Hamlet. Prince Hamlet asks Polonius about his career as a thespian at university, Polonius replies "I did enact Julius Caesar. I was killed i' th' Capitol. Brutus killed me. The police procedural combines Shakespeare, Dragnet , and vaudeville jokes and was first broadcast on The Ed Sullivan Show.
The movie Me and Orson Welles , based on a book of the same name by Robert Kaplow , is a fictional story centred around Orson Welles ' famous production of Julius Caesar at the Mercury Theatre. In the Ray Bradbury book Fahrenheit , some of the character Beatty's last words are "There is no terror, Cassius, in your threats, for I am armed so strong in honesty that they pass me as an idle wind, which I respect not! The play's line "the fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, but in ourselves", spoken by Cassius in Act I, scene 2, is often referenced in popular culture.
The line gave its name to the J. The same line was quoted in Edward R. This speech and the line were recreated in the film Good Night, and Good Luck. The titles of Agatha Christie novel Taken at the Flood , titled There Is a Tide in its American edition, refer to an iconic line of Brutus: "There is a tide in the affairs of men, which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune. Julius Caesar has been adapted to a number of film productions, including:. Modern adaptions of the play have often made contemporary political references,  with Caesar depicted as resembling a variety of political leaders, including Huey Long , Margaret Thatcher , and Tony Blair.
Hartley , the Robinson Chair of Shakespeare Studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte , states that this is a fairly "common trope" of Julius Caesar performances: "Throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, the rule has been to create a recognisable political world within the production. And often people in the title role itself look like or feel like somebody either in recent or current politics. Look what happens: Caesar is assassinated to stop him becoming a dictator. Result: civil war , massive slaughter, creation of an emperor, execution of many who sympathized with the conspiracy.
Doesn't look much like a successful result for the conspirators to me. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: tone. Please help improve this article if you can. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Play by William Shakespeare. Castle of Indolence , a poem of Thomson's, a place in which the dwellers live amid luxurious delights, to the enervation of soul and body. Castleford 14 , a town 10 m. Castlereagh, Lord , entered political life as a member of the Irish Parliament, co-operated with Pitt in securing the Union, after which he entered the Imperial Parliament, became War Minister , till the ill-fated Walcheren expedition and a duel with Canning obliged him to resign; became Foreign Secretary in , and the soul of the coalition against Napoleon; represented the country in a congress after Napoleon's fall; succeeded his father as Marquis of Londonderry in , and committed suicide the year following; his name has been unduly defamed, and his services to the country as a diplomatist have been entirely overlooked Castletown , a seaport in the Isle of Man, 11 m.
Castor and Pollux , the Dioscuri, the twin sons of Zeus by Leda; great, the former in horsemanship, and the latter in boxing; famed for their mutual affection, so that when the former was slain the latter begged to be allowed to die with him, whereupon it was agreed they should spend a day in Hades time about; were raised eventually to become stars in the sky, the Gemini, twin signs in the zodiac, rising and setting together; this name is also given to the electric phenomenon called St. Elmo's Fire q. Castres 22 , a town in the dep. Castro, Inez de , a royal heiress of the Spanish throne in the 14th century, the beloved wife of Don Pedro, heir of the Portuguese throne; put to death out of jealousy of Spain by the latter's father, but on his accession dug out of her grave, arrayed in her royal robes, and crowned along with him, after which she was entombed again, and a magnificent monument erected over her remains.
Castro, Juan de , a Portuguese soldier, born at Lisbon, distinguished for his exploits in behalf of Portugal; made viceroy of the Portuguese Indies, but died soon after in the arms of Francis Xavier Castro, Vaca de , a Spaniard, sent out by Charles V. Castrogiovanni 18 , a town in a strong position in the heart of Sicily, ft. Catacombs , originally underground quarries, afterwards used as burial-places for the dead, found beneath Paris and in the neighbourhood of Rome, as well as elsewhere; those around Rome, some 40 in number, are the most famous, as having been used by the early Christians, not merely for burial but for purposes of worship, and are rich In monuments of art and memorials of history.
Catalani, Angelica , a celebrated Italian singer and prima donna, born near Ancona; began her career in Rome with such success that it led to engagements over all the chief cities of Europe, the enthusiasm which followed her reaching its climax when she came to England, where, on her first visit, she stayed eight years; by the failure of an enterprise in Paris she lost her fortune, but soon repaired it by revisiting the capitals of Europe; died of cholera in Paris Catalonia 1, , old prov. Categories are either classes under which all our Notions of things may be grouped, or classes under which all our Thoughts of things may be grouped; the former called Logical, we owe to Aristotle, and the latter called Metaphysical, we owe to Kant.
The Metaphysical, so derived, that group our thoughts, are twelve in number: 1 as regards quantity , Totality, Plurality, Unity; 2 as regards quality , Reality, Negation, Limitation; 3 as regards relation , Substance, Accident, Cause and Effect, Action and Reaction; 4 as regards modality , Possibility and Impossibility, Existence and Nonexistence, Necessity and Contingency. Catesby, Mark , an English naturalist and traveller, wrote a natural history of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahamas Catesby, Robert , born in Northamptonshire, a Catholic of good birth; concerned in the famous Gunpowder Plot; shot dead three days after its discovery by officers sent to arrest him Catharine, St.
Festival, Nov. Catharine I. Catharine II. Bartholomew; on his death, which occurred soon after, she acted as regent during the minority of her third son, Henry III. The refusal of the Pope to sanction this divorce led to the final rupture of the English Church from the Church of Rome, and the emancipation of the nation from priestly tyranny Catharine of Braganza , the wife of Charles II. Catharine of Sienna , born at Sienna, a sister of the Order of St. Dominic, and patron saint of the Order; celebrated for her ecstasies and visions, and the marks which by favour of Christ she bore on her body of His sufferings on the Cross Festival, April Besides her, are other saints of the same name.
Catharine of Valois , daughter of Charles VI. Catharine Theot , a religious fanatic, born in Avranches; gave herself out as the Mother of God; appeared in Paris in , and declared Robespierre a second John the Baptist and forerunner of the Word; the Committee of Public Safety had her arrested and guillotined. Cathcart, Earl , a British general and diplomatist, born in Renfrewshire; saw service in America and Flanders; distinguished himself at the bombardment of Copenhagen; represented England at the court of Russia and the Congress of Vienna Cathcart, Sir George , a lieutenant-general, son of the preceding; enlisted in the army; served in the later Napoleonic wars; was present at Quatre-Bras and Waterloo; was governor of the Cape; brought the Kaffir war to a successful conclusion; served in the Crimea, and fell at Inkerman Cathedral , the principal church in a diocese, and which contains the throne of the bishop as his seat of authority; is of a rank corresponding to the dignity of the bishop; the governing body consists of the dean and chapter.
Catholic Emancipation , the name given to the emancipation in of the Roman Catholics of the United Kingdom from disabilities which precluded their election to office in the State, so that they are eligible now to any save the Lord Chancellorship of England and offices representative of royalty. Catholic Epistles , the name, equivalent to encyclical, given to certain epistles in the New Testament not addressed to any community in particular, but to several, and given eventually to all not written by St. Catholic Majesty , a title given by the Pope to several Spanish monarchs for their zeal in the defence of the Catholic faith. Catiline , or Lucius Sergius Catilina , a Roman patrician, an able man, but unscrupulously ambitious; frustrated in his ambitious designs, he formed a conspiracy against the State, which was discovered and exposed by Cicero, a discovery which obliged him to leave the city; he tried to stir up hostility outside; this too being discovered by Cicero, an army was sent against him, when an engagement ensued, in which, fighting desperately, he was slain, 62 B.
Catlin, George , a traveller among the North American Indians, and author of an illustrated work on their life and manners; spent eight years among them Cato Dionysius , name of a book of maxims in verse, held in high favour during the Middle Ages; of unknown authorship. Cato-Street Conspiracy , an insignificant, abortive plot, headed by one Thistlewood, to assassinate Castlereagh and other ministers of the crown in ; so called from their place of meeting off the Edgeware Road, London. Catrail , an old Roman earthwork, 50 m. Catskill Mountains , a group of mountains, of steep ascent, and with rocky summits, in New York State, W.
Cattegat , an arm of the sea, m. Cattle Plague , or Rinderpest , a disease which affects ruminants, but especially bovine cattle; indigenous to the East, Russia, Persia, India, and China, and imported into Britain only by contagion of some kind; the most serious outbreaks were in and Cauca , a river in Colombia, S. America, which falls into the Magdalena after a northward course of m. Caucasia , a prov. Caucasian race , a name adopted by Blumenbach to denote the Indo-European race, from the fine type of a skull of one of the race found in Georgia.
Caucasus , an enormous mountain range, m. Cauchon , bishop of Beauvais, infamous for the iniquitous part he played in the trial and condemnation of Joan of Arc; d. Caucus , a preliminary private meeting to arrange and agree on some measure or course to propose at a general meeting of a political party. Caudine Forks , a narrow mountain gorge in Samnium, in which, during the second Samnite war, a Roman army was entrapped and caught by the Samnites, who obliged them to pass under the yoke in token of subjugation, B. Caudle, Mrs. Job Caudle. Caul , a membrane covering the head of some children at birth, to which a magical virtue was at one time ascribed, and which, on that account, was rated high and sold often at a high price.
Caus, Salomon de , a French engineer, born at Dieppe; discovered the properties of steam as a motive force towards ; claimed by Arago as the inventor of the steam-engine in consequence. Causality , the philosophic name for the nature of the relation between cause and effect, in regard to which there has been much diversity of opinion among philosophers. Cauterets , a fashionable watering-place in the dep. Cavalcaselle, Giovanni Battista , Italian writer on art; joint-author with J. Cavalier, Jean , leader of the Camisards q. Cavaliers , the royalist partisans of Charles I. Cavan , inland county S. Johnson contributed; was the first to give Johnson literary work, employing him as parliamentary reporter, and Johnson was much attached to him; he died with his hand in Johnson's Cave, William , an English divine; author of works on the Fathers of the Church and on primitive Christianity, of high repute at one time Cavendish , the surname of the Devonshire ducal family, traceable back to the 14th century.
Cavendish, George , the biographer of Wolsey; never left him while he lived, and never forgot him or the lesson of his life after he was dead; this appears from the vivid picture he gives of him, though written 30 years after his death Cavendish, Lord Frederick , brother of the ninth Duke of Devonshire, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and a Liberal; was made Chief-Secretary for Ireland in , but chancing to walk home one evening through the Phoenix Park, he fell a victim, stabbed to the heart, of a conspiracy that was aimed at Mr.
Burke, an unpopular subordinate, who was walking along with him, and came to the same fate. Eight months after, 20 men were arrested as concerned in the murder, when one of the 20 informed; five of them were hanged; the informer Carey was afterwards murdered, and his murderer, O'Donnel, hanged Cavendish, Henry , natural philosopher and chemist, born at Nice, of the Devonshire family; devoted his entire life to scientific investigations; the first to analyse the air of the atmosphere, determine the mean density of the earth, discover the composition of water, and ascertain the properties of hydrogen; was an extremely shy, retiring man; born rich and died rich, leaving over a million sterling Cavendish, Spencer Compton , ninth Duke of Devonshire, for long known in public life as Marquis of Hartington; also educated at Trinity College, and a leader of the Liberal party; served under Gladstone till he adopted Home Rule for Ireland, but joined Lord Salisbury in the interest of Union, and one of the leaders of what is called the Liberal-Unionist party; b.
Cavendish, Thomas , an English navigator, fitted out three vessels to cruise against the Spaniards; extended his cruise into the Pacific; succeeded in taking valuable prizes, with which he landed in England, after circumnavigating the globe; he set out on a second cruise, which ended in disaster, and he died in the island of Ascension broken-hearted Cavendish, William , English courtier and cavalier in the reigns of James I. Cavendish, William , first Duke of Devonshire; friend and protector of Lord William Russell; became a great favourite at court, and was raised to the dukedom Caviare , the roe the immature ovaries of the common sturgeon and other kindred fishes, caught chiefly in the Black and Caspian Seas, and prepared and salted; deemed a great luxury by those who have acquired the taste for it; largely imported from Astrakhan.
Cavour, Count Camillo Benso de , one of the greatest of modern statesmen, born the younger son of a Piedmontese family at Turin; entered the army, but was precluded from a military career by his liberal opinions; retired, and for 16 years laboured as a private gentleman to improve the social and economic condition of Piedmont; in he threw himself into the great movement which resulted in the independence and unification of Italy; for the next 14 years, as editor of Il Risorgimento , member of the chamber of deputies, holder of various portfolios in the government, and ultimately as prime minister of the kingdom of Sardinia, he obtained a constitution and representative government for his country, improved its fiscal and financial condition, and raised it to a place of influence in Europe; he co-operated with the allies in the Crimean war; negotiated with Napoleon III.
Cawnpore , a city on the right bank of the Ganges, in the North-Western Provinces of India, 40 m. Cayenne 10 , cap. Cayley, Arthur , an eminent English mathematician, professor at Cambridge, and president of the British Association in Caylus, Marquise de , born in Poitou, related to Mme. Cyr Cean-Bermudez , a Spanish writer on art; author of a biographical dictionary of the principal artists of Spain See Burleigh, Lord. Cecilia, St. Cecrops , the mythical first king and civiliser of Attica and founder of Athens with its citadel, dedicated by him to Athena, whence the name of the city. Cedar Rapids 25 , a manufacturing town in Iowa, U.
Celestial Empire , China, as ruled over by a dynasty appointed by Heaven. Celestine , the name of five Popes: C. Celestines , an order of monks founded by Celestine V. Cellini, Benvenuto , a celebrated engraver, sculptor, and goldsmith, a most versatile and erratic genius, born at Florence; had to leave Florence for a bloody fray he was involved in, and went to Rome; wrought as a goldsmith there for 20 years, patronised by the nobles; killed the Constable de Bourbon at the sack of the city, and for this received plenary indulgence from the Pope; Francis I.
Celsius , a distinguished Swedish astronomer, born at Upsala, and professor of Astronomy there; inventor of the Centigrade thermometer Celsus , a philosopher of the 2nd century, and notable as the first assailant on philosophic grounds of the Christian religion, particularly as regards the power it claims to deliver from the evil that is inherent in human nature, inseparable from it, and implanted in it not by God, but some inferior being remote from Him; the book in which he attacked Christianity is no longer extant, only quotations from it scattered over the pages of the defence of Origen in reply. The W. The earlier invaders were Goidels or Gaels; they conquered the Ivernian and Iberian peoples of ancient Gaul, Britain, and Ireland; their successors, the Brythons or Britons pouring from the E.
Cenci, The , a Roman family celebrated for their crimes and misfortunes as well as their wealth. Francesco Cenci was twice married, had had twelve children by his first wife, whom he treated cruelly; after his second marriage cruelly treated the children of his first wife, but conceived a criminal passion for the youngest of them, a beautiful girl named Beatrice , whom he outraged, upon which, being unable to bring him to justice, she, along with her stepmother and a brother, hired two assassins to murder him; the crime was found out, and all three were beheaded ; this is the story on which Shelley founded his tragedy, but it is now discredited. Cenis, Mont , one of the Cottian Alps, over which Napoleon constructed a pass ft. Censors , two magistrates of ancient Rome, who held office at first for five years and then eighteen months, whose duty it was to keep a register of the citizens, guard the public morals, collect the public revenue, and superintend the public property.
Central America 3, , territory of fertile tableland sloping gradually to both oceans, occupied chiefly by a number of small republics, lying between Tehuantepec and Panama in N. America; it includes the republics of Guatemala, Honduras, St. Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, and a few adjoining fractions of territory. Central India 10, , includes a group of feudatory States lying between Rajputana in the N.
Central Provinces 12, , States partly British and partly native, occupying the N. Ceos , one of the Cyclades, a small island 13 m. Cephalonia 80 , the largest of the Ionian Islands, 30 m. Cephalus , king of Thessaly, who having involuntarily killed his wife Procris, in despair put himself to death with the same weapon. Moluccas; yields sago, which is chiefly cultivated and largely exported. Cerberus , the three-headed or three-throated monster that guarded the entrance to the nether world of Pluto, could be soothed by music, and tempted by honey, only Hercules overcame him by sheer strength, dragging him by neck and crop to the upper world.
Ceres , the Latin name for Demeter q. Cerinthus , a heresiarch of the first century, whom, according to tradition, St. John held in special detestation, presumably as denying the Father and the Son. Cerro de Pasco , a town in Peru, 14, ft. Cerutti , a Jesuit, born at Turin; became a Revolutionary in France; pronounced the funeral oration at the grave of Mirabeau in Cervin, Mont , the French name for the Matterhorn, ft. Cetinje , the capital of Montenegro, in a valley ft. Cette 36 , a seaport, trading, and manufacturing town, on a tongue of land between the lagoon of Thau and the Mediterranean, 23 m.
Ceylon 3, , a pear-shaped island about the size of Scotland, separated from India, to which it geographically belongs, and SE. The chief exports are tea, rice, cotton goods, and coals. Two-thirds of the people are Singhalese and Buddhists, there are Europeans. The island is a crown colony, the largest in the British Empire, administered by a governor with executive and legislative councils; the capital and chief port is Colombo Chacktaw Indians. See Chocktaw. Chadwick, Sir Edwin , an English social reformer, born in Manchester, associated with measures bearing upon sanitation and the improvement of the poor-laws, and connected with the administration of them Chalaza , one of the two filaments attached to the ends of the yoke of an egg to steady it in the albumen.
Chalcedon , a city of Bithynia, at the entrance of the Thracian Bosphorus, where the fourth Council of the Church was held in , which defined the orthodox conception of Christ as God-man. Chalier , a Piedmontese, head of the party of the Mountain at Lyons; his execution the signal for an insurrection at Lyons against the Convention Challenger Expedition , a scientific expedition sent out by the British Government in the Challenger in in the interest of science, and under the management of scientific experts, to various stations over the globe, to explore the ocean, and ascertain all manner of facts regarding it open to observation, an expedition which concluded its operations in , of which as many as 50 volumes of reports have been compiled.
Challis, James , an astronomer, born in Essex, noted the position of the planet Neptune before its actual discovery Chains , chief town of the French dep. Chamber of Commerce , an association of merchants to promote and protect the interests of trade, particularly of the town or the district to which they belong. Chamber of Deputies , a French legislative assembly, elected now by universal suffrage. Chamberlain, Right Hon. Joseph , born in London, connected as a business man with Birmingham; after serving the latter city in a municipal capacity, was elected the parliamentary representative in ; became President of the Board of Trade under Mr.
Gladstone in , and chief promoter of the Bankruptcy Bill; broke with Mr. Chambers, George , an English marine painter, born at Whitby; d. Chambers, Sir William , architect, born at Stockholm, of Scotch origin; architect of Somerset House; was of the Johnson circle of wits Chambre Ardente , a name given to certain courts of justice established to try certain cases that required to be sharply dealt with; they were held at night, and even when held in the daytime with lighted torches; a court of the kind was instituted for trial of the Huguenots in , and again in and Chamouni, or Chamonix , a village in the dep. Chamousset , a French philanthropist, born in Paris; the originator of mutual benefit societies Champagne , an ancient province of France, m.
Champlain, Samuel de , a French navigator, born at Brouage, in Saintonge, was founder of Quebec, and French Governor of Canada; wrote an account of his voyages Chancellor, Richard , an English seaman, voyaging in northern parts, arrived in the White Sea, and travelled to Moscow, where he concluded a commercial treaty with Russia on behalf of an English company; wrote an interesting account of his visit; after a second visit, in which he visited Moscow, was wrecked on the coast of Aberdeenshire in Chandernagore 25 , a small town and territory on the Hooghly, 22 m.
Chandos , an English title inherited by the Grenville family, of Norman origin. Channel Islands 92 , a group of small islands off the NW. Chanson De Gestes i. Chantrey, Sir Francis , an English sculptor, born in Derbyshire; was apprenticed to a carver and gilder in Sheffield; displayed a talent for drawing and modelling; received a commission to execute a marble bust for the parish, church, which was so successful as to procure him further and further commissions; executed four colossal busts of admirals for Greenwich Hospital; being expert at portraiture, his busts were likenesses; executed busts of many of the most illustrious men of the time, among them of Sir Walter Scott, Wordsworth, Southey, and Wellington, as well as of royal heads; made a large fortune, and left it for the encouragement of art Chanzy , a French general, born at Nouart, Ardennes; served in Algeria; commanded the army of the Loire in ; distinguished himself by his brilliant retreat from Mans to Laval; was afterwards Governor-General in Algeria; died suddenly, to the regret of his country Chaos , a name in the ancient cosmogomy for the formless void out of which everything at first sprang into existence, or the wide-spread confusion that prevailed before it shaped itself into order under the breath of the spirit of life.
Chapman, George , English dramatic poet, born at Hitchin, Hertfordshire; wrote numerous plays, both in tragedy and comedy, as well as poems, of unequal merit, but his great achievement, and the one on which his fame rests, is his translation into verse of the works of Homer, which, though not always true to the letter, is instinct with somewhat of the freshness and fire of the original; his translation is reckoned the best yet done into English verse, and the best rendering into verse of any classic, ancient or modern Chappell , musical amateur, collector and editor of old English airs, and contributor to the history of English national music; was one of the founders of the Musical Hungarian Society, and the Percy Society Charcot, Jean Martin , a French pathologist; made a special study of nervous diseases, including hypnotism, and was eminent for his works in connection therewith Charente , a dep.
Charlemagne i. Charles or Karl the Great, the first Carlovingian king of the Franks, son and successor of Pepin le Bref the Short ; became sole ruler on the death of his brother Carloman in ; he subjugated by his arms the southern Gauls, the Lombards, the Saxons, and the Avares, and conducted a successful expedition against the Moors in Spain, with the result that his kingdom extended from the Ebro to the Elbe; having passed over into Italy in support of the Pope, he was on Christmas Day crowned Emperor of the West, after which he devoted himself to the welfare of his subjects, and proved himself as great in legislation as in arms; enacted laws for the empire called capitularies, reformed the judicial administration, patronised letters, and established schools; kept himself in touch and au courant with everything over his vast domain; he died and was buried at Aix-la-Chapelle Charleroi 21 , a manufacturing town in Hainault, Belgium, 35 m.
Charles II. Charles III. Charles IV. Charles V. Charles VI. Charles VII. Charles VIII. Charles IX. Bartholomew, into the perpetration of which Charles was inveigled by his mother and the Guises; incensed at this outrage the Huguenots commenced a fourth war, and were undertaking a fifth when Charles died, haunted by remorse and in dread of the infinite terror Charles X. Yuste, in Estremadura, near which he built a magnificent retreat, where, it is understood, notwithstanding his apparent retirement, he continued to take interest in political affairs, and to advise in the management of them Charles XII. Charles I. Charles , a French physicist, born at Beaugency; was the first to apply hydrogen to the inflation of balloons Charles Albert , king of Sardinia, succeeded Charles Felix in ; conceived a design to emancipate and unite Italy; in the pursuit of this object he declared war against Austria; though at first successful, was defeated at Novara, and to save his kingdom was compelled to resign in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel; retired to Oporto, and died of a broken heart Charles Martel i.
Charles of Anjou , brother of St. Louis, king of Naples; lost Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers Charles of Valois , third son of Philip the Bold, one of the greatest captains of his age Charles's Wain , the constellation of Ursa Major, a wagon without a wagoner. Charleston 56 , the largest city in S. Carolina, and the chief commercial city; also a town in Western Virginia, U. Charlet, Nicolas Toussaint , a designer and painter, born in Paris; famous for his sketches of military subjects and country life, in which he displayed not a little humour Charleville 17 , a manufacturing and trading town in the dep.
Charlevoix , a Jesuit and traveller, born at St. Quentin, explored the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi Charlotte, Princess , daughter and only child of George IV. Charlottenburg 76 , a town on the Spree, 3 m. Charnay , a French traveller; a writer on the ancient civilisation of Mexico, which he has made a special study; b. Charon , in the Greek mythology the ferryman of the ghosts of the dead over the Styx into Hades, a grim old figure with a mean dress and a dirty beard, peremptory in exacting from the ghosts he ferried over the obolus allowed him for passage-money.
Charondas , a Sicilian law-giver, disciple of Pythagoras; is said to have killed himself when he found he had involuntarily broken one of his own laws B. Charterhouse , a large London school, originally a Carthusian monastery, and for a time a residence of the dukes of Norfolk. Chartier, Alain , an early scholarly French poet and prose writer of note, born at Bayeux; secretary to Charleses V. The refusal of the petition gave rise to great agitation over the country, which gradually died out in Chartres 23 , the capital of the French dep. Chartreuse, La Grande , a monastery founded by St.
Bruno in in the dep. See Scylla. Chase, Salmon Portland , Chief-Justice of the United States; a great anti-slavery advocate and leader of the Free-Soil party; aimed at the Presidency, but failed Chasles, Michel , an eminent French mathematician, and held one of the first in the century; on the faith of certain autographs, which were afterwards proved to be forgeries, he in astonished the world by ascribing to Pascal the great discoveries of Newton, but had to admit he was deceived Chastelard, Pierre de Boscosel de , grandson of Bayard; conceived an insane passion for Queen Mary, whom he accompanied to Scotland; was surprised in her bedchamber, under her bed, and condemned to death, it being his second offence Chat Moss , a large bog in Lancashire, 7 m.
Malo, younger son of a noble family of Brittany; travelled to N. Chatham 59 , a town in Kent, on the estuary of the Medway, a fortified naval arsenal; is connected with Rochester. Chatham Islands , a group of islands m. Chatsworth , the palatial seat of the Duke of Devonshire, in Derbyshire, 8 m. Chatterton, Thomas , a poet of great promise, had a tragic fate, born at Bristol, passed off while but a boy as copies of ancient MSS. Chaucer, Geoffrey , the great early English poet, and father of English poetry, the son of a vintner and taverner, born probably in London, where he lived almost all his days; when a lad, served as page in the royal household; won the favour and patronage of the king, Edward III.
Chautauqua , a summer resort on a lake of the name in the W. Chauvinism , a name among the French for what is known as Jingoism among the English, i. Cheddar , a village in Somersetshire, on the Mendip Hills, famous for its cheese. Cheke, Sir John , a zealous Greek scholar, born at Cambridge, and first regius professor of Greek there; did much to revive in England an interest in Greek and Greek literature; was tutor to Edward VI. Chelsea 96 , a western suburb of London, on the N. Cheltenham 49 , a healthy watering-place and educational centre in Gloucestershire; first brought into repute as a place of fashionable resort by the visits of George III. Chelyuskin, Cape , in Siberia, the most northerly point in the Eastern hemisphere. Chemical Affinity , the tendency elementary bodies have to combine and remain in combination.
Chemistry , the science that treats of elementary bodies and their combinations: inorganic , relating to physical compounds; organic , relating to vegetable and animal compounds. Chemosh , the national god of the Moabites, akin to Moloch, and their stay in battle, but an abomination to the children of Jehovah. Chemulpo , a town on the W. Chenery, Thomas , a journalist; became editor of the Times ; was distinguished for his knowledge of Arabic and Hebrew, and was one of the Old Testament revisers Cheophren , king of Egypt, brother and successor of Cheops; built the second great pyramid. Cheops , king of Memphis, in Egypt, of the 4th dynasty; builder of the largest of the pyramids about B.
Chepstow 4 , a port on the Wye, Monmouthshire, 17 m. Cher , an affluent of the Loire below Tours; also the dep. Cherbourg 40 , a French port and arsenal in the dep. Cherbuliez, Victor , novelist, critic, and publicist, born at Geneva, of a distinguished family; professor of Greek at Geneva; holds a high place, and is widely known, as a writer of a series of works of fiction; b. Cherokees , a tribe of American Indians, numbering some 20,, in the NW.
Cherra Punji 5 , a village in the Khasi Hills, Assam, with the heaviest rainfall of any place on the globe. Chertsey 11 , a very old town of Surrey, 21 m. Cherubim , an order of angelic beings conceived of as accompanying the manifestations of Jehovah, supporting His throne and protecting His glory, guarding it from profane intrusion; winged effigies of them overshadowed the Mercy Seat q.
Cherusci , an ancient people of Germany, whose leader was Arminius, and under whom they defeated the Romans, commanded by Varus, in 9 A. Chesapeake Bay , a northward-extending inlet on the Atlantic coast of the United States, m. Cheshire , a western county of England, between the Mersey and the Dee, the chief mineral products of which are coal and rock-salt, and the agricultural, butter and cheese; has numerous manufacturing towns, with every facility for inter-communication, and the finest pasture-land in England.
Cheshunt 9 , a large village in Hertfordshire, 14 m. Chesil Beach , a neck of land on the Devonshire coast, 15 m. Chesney, C. Chesney, Francis Rawdon , explorer, born in co. Down, Ireland; explored with much labour the route to India by way of the Euphrates, though his labours were rendered futile by the opposition of Russia; proved, by survey of the isthmus, the practicability of the Suez Canal Chester 41 , the county town of Cheshire, on the Dee, 16 m.
Chesterfield 22 , a town in Derbyshire, 21 m. Chevalier, Michel , a celebrated French economist, born at Limoges; originally a Socialist of the St. Simonian school; for defending Socialism was imprisoned, but recanted, and wrote ably against Socialism; was a free-trader and coadjutor of Cobden Chevalier, Sulpice. See Gavarni. Chevalier d'Industrie , one who lives by his wits, specially by swindling. Chevaux-de-Frise , a military fence composed of a beam or a bar armed with long spikes, literally Friesland horses, having been first used in Friesland. Cheviot Hills , a range on the borders of England and Scotland, extending 35 m. Chevreuse, Duchesse de , played an important part in the Fronde and in the plots against Richelieu and Mazarin; her Life has been written by Victor Cousin Chevron , in heraldry an ordinary of two bands forming an angle descending to the extremities of the shield; representing the two rafters of a house, meeting at the top.
Chevy Chase , the subject and title of a highly popular old English ballad, presumed to refer to an event in connection with the battle of Otterburn; there were strains in it which Sir Philip Sidney said moved his heart more than with a trumpet. Cheyenne Indians , a warlike tribe of Red Indians, now much reduced, and partially settled in the Indian Territory, U. Cheyne, George , a physician and medical writer, born in Aberdeenshire, in practice in London; suffered from corpulency, being 32 stone in weight, but kept it down by vegetable and milk diet, which he recommended to others in the like case; wrote on fevers, nervous disorders, and hygiene; wrote also on fluxions Chiapas, Las , a Pacific State of Mexico, covered with forests; yields maize, sugar, cacao, and cotton.
Chiaroscuro , the reproduction in art of the effects of light and shade on nature as they mutually affect each other. Chibchas or Muyscas , a civilised people, though on a lower stage than the Peruvians, whom the Spaniards found established in New Granada in the 16th century, now merged in the Spanish population; they worship the sun. Chica , an orange-red colouring matter obtained from boiling the leaves of the Bignonia chica , and used as a dye. Chicago 1, , the metropolis of Illinois, in the NE.
Situated in the heart of the continent, a third of the United States railway system centres in it, and it communicates with all Canada, and with the ocean by the Great Lakes and the St. Chicard , the harlequin of the modern French carnival, grotesquely dressed up. Chicheley, Henry , archbishop of Canterbury, a scholar and statesman, often employed on embassies, a moderate churchman; accompanied Henry V. Chichester 9 , a cathedral city in the W. Chichevache , a monster fabled to feed on good women, and starved, from the scarcity of them, to skin and bone, in contrast with another called Bicorn, that fed on good men, who are more plentiful, and was fat and plump. Chickasaws , N. American Indians, allied to the Chocktaws, settled in a civilised state in the Indian Territory like the Cherokees.
Chiem-see , a high-lying lake in Upper Bavaria, 48 m. Chien de Jean de Nivelle , the dog that never came when it was called. See Nivelle. Chigoe , an insect which infests the skin of the feet, multiplies incredibly, and is a great annoyance to the negro, who, however, is pretty expert in getting rid of it. Child, Lydia Maria , an American novelist and anti-slavery advocate Childe , the eldest son of a nobleman who has not yet attained to knighthood, or has not yet won his spurs.
Childerbert I. Childerbrand , a Frank warrior, who figures in old chronicles as the brother of Charles Martel, signalised himself in the expulsion of the Saracens from France. Omer in Childermas , a festival to commemorate the massacre of the children by Herod. Childers, Robert C. Children of the Wood , two children, a boy and girl, left to the care of an uncle, who hired two ruffians to murder them, that he might inherit their wealth; one of the ruffians relented, killed his companion, and left the children in a wood, who were found dead in the morning, a redbreast having covered their bodies with strawberry leaves; the uncle was thereafter goaded to death by the furies.
Chile 2, , the most advanced and stable of the S. American States, occupies a strip of country, m. The climate is naturally various. In the S. The central portion enjoys a temperate climate with moderate rainfall, and produces excellent wheat, grapes, and fruits of all kinds. The Andes tower above the snow-line, Aconcagua reaching 23, ft. The rivers are short and rapid, of little use for navigation. The coast-line is even in the N. The people are descendants of Spaniards, mingled with Araucanian Indians; but there is a large European element in all the coast towns. Mining and agriculture are the chief industries; manufactures of various kinds are fostered with foreign capital.
The chief trade is with Britain: exports nitre, wheat, copper, and iodine; imports, textiles, machinery, sugar, and cattle. Santiago is the capital; Valparaiso and Iquique the principal ports. The government is republican; Roman Catholicism the State religion; education is fairly well fostered; there is a university at Santiago. The country was first visited by Magellan in In Pedro Valdivia entered it from Peru and founded Santiago. During colonial days it was an annex of Peru. In the revolt against Spain broke out. Independence was gained in Settled government was established in Since then a revolution in , successful wars with Spain , with Bolivia and Peru , and a revolution in , have been the most stirring events in its history.
Chillianwalla , a village in the Punjab, 80 m. Gough; it was also the scene of a battle between Alexander the Great and Porus. Chillingham , a village in Northumberland, 8 m. Chillon, Castle of , a castle and state prison built on a rock, 62 ft. Chiltern Hills , a range of chalk hills extending about 70 m. Chiltern Hundreds , a wardship of beech forests on the Chiltern Hills against robbers, that at one time infested them; now a sinecure office, the acceptance of which enables a member of Parliament to resign his seat if he wishes to retire, the office being regarded as a Government one.
Chimpanzee , a large African ape, from 3 to 4 ft. China , to , , which, with Tibet, Mongolia from which it is separated by the Great Wall , and parts of Turkestan, forms the Chinese Empire; is a vast, compact, and densely peopled country in Eastern Asia; bounded on the N. In the W. Two great rivers traverse the country, the Hoang-ho and the Yangtse-kiang, the latter with many large lakes in its course, and bearing on its waters an innumerable fleet of boats and barges. Between the lower courses of these rivers lies the Great Plain, one of the vastest and richest in the world, whose yellow soil produces great crops with little labour and no manure.
The coast-line is long and much indented, and out of it are bitten the gulfs of Pe-che-lee, the Yellow Sea, and Hang-chou. There are many small islands off the coast; the mountainous Hainau is the only large one still Chinese. The climate in the N. The country is rich in evergreens and flowering plants. Agriculture is the chief industry, and though primitive, it is remarkably painstaking and skilful. Forests have everywhere been cleared away, and the whole country is marvellously fertile. Its mineral wealth is enormous. Commerce is as yet chiefly internal; its inter-provincial trade is the largest and oldest in the world.
Foreign trade is growing, almost all as yet done with Britain and her Colonies. Tea and silk are exported; cotton goods and opium imported. About twenty-five ports are open to British vessels, of which the largest are Shanghai and Canton. There are no railways; communication inland is by road, river, and canals. The people are a mixed race of Mongol type, kindly, courteous, peaceful, and extremely industrious, and in their own way well educated. Buddhism is the prevailing faith of the masses, Confucianism of the upper classes.
The Government is in theory a patriarchal autocracy, the Emperor being at once father and high-priest of all the people, and vicegerent of heaven. The capital is Pekin , in the NE. Chinese history goes back to B. English intercourse with the Chinese began in A. The Anglo-Chinese wars of , , and broke down the barrier of exclusion previously maintained against the outside world. The Japanese war of betrayed the weakness of the national organisation; and the seizure of Formosa by Japan, the Russo-Japanese protectorate over Manchuria and Corea, the French demand for Kwang-si and Kwang-tung, enforced lease of Kiao-chau to Germany, and of Wei-hai-wei to Britain , seem to forebode the partition of the ancient empire among the more energetic Western nations.
China, the Great Wall of , a wall, with towers and forts at intervals, about m. Chincha Islands , islands off the coast of Peru that had beds of guano, often ft. Chinchilla , a rodent of S. America, hunted for its fur, which is soft and of a grey colour; found chiefly in the mountainous districts of Peru and Chile. Chinese Gordon , General Gordon, killed at Khartoum; so called for having, in , suppressed a rebellion in China which had lasted 15 years. Chinook , a tribe of Indians in Washington Territory, noted for flattening their skulls. Chinsura , a Dutch-built town on the right bank of the Hoogly, 20 m.
Chinz , a calico printed with flowers and other devices in different colours; originally of Eastern manufacture. Chioggia 25 , a seaport of Venetia, built on piles, on a lagoon island at the mouth of the Brenta, connected with the mainland by a bridge with 43 arches. Chios , or Scio 25 , a small island belonging to Turkey, in the Grecian Archipelago; subject to earthquakes; yields oranges and lemons in great quantities; claims to have been the birthplace of Homer.
Chippendale, Thomas , a cabinet-maker, born in Worcestershire; famous in the last century for the quality and style of his workmanship; his work still much in request. Chippeways , a Red Indian tribe, some 12, strong, located in Michigan, U. Chiron , a celebrated Centaur, in whose nature the animal element was subject to the human, and who was intrusted with the education of certain heroes of Greece, among others Peleus and Achilles; was endowed with the gift of prophecy, and skilled in athletics as well as music and the healing art. See Centaurs. Chislehurst 6 , a village in Kent, 10 m. Chiswick 21 , a suburb of London, 7 m. Paul's; the Church of St. Nicholas has monuments to several people of distinction. Chitin , a white horny substance found in the exoskeleton of several invertebrate animals.
Chitral , a State on the frontier of India, NW. Chittagong 24 , a seaport in the Bay of Bengal, m. Chivalry , a system of knighthood, for the profession of which the qualifications required were dignity, courtesy, bravery, generosity; the aim of which was the defence of right against wrong, of the weak against the strong, and especially of the honour and the purity of women, and the spirit of which was of Christian derivation; originally a military organisation in defence of Christianity against the infidel. Chlopicki, Joseph , a Polish hero, born in Galicia; fought against Russia under Napoleon; was chosen Dictator in , but was forced to resign; fought afterwards in the ranks, and was severely wounded Chloral , a colourless narcotic liquid, obtained at first by the action of chlorine on alcohol; treated with water it produces chloral hydrate.
Chlorine , elementary, greenish-yellow gas obtained from common salt; powerful as a disinfectant, and a bleaching agent. Chlorophyll , the green colouring matter in plants, especially the leaves; due to the presence and action of light. Chlorosis , green sickness, a disease incident to young females at a critical period of life, causing a pale-greenish complexion. Choiseul, Duc de , minister of Louis XV. Cholera Morbus , an epidemic disease characterised by violent vomiting and purging, accompanied with spasms, great pain, and debility; originated in India, and has during the present century frequently spread itself by way of Asia into populous centres of both Europe and America. Cholula , an ancient city, 60 m. Chopin , a musical composer, born near Warsaw, of Polish origin; his genius for music early developed itself; distinguished himself as a pianist first at Vienna and then in Paris, where he introduced the mazurkas; became the idol of the salons ; visited England twice, in and , and performed to admiration in London and three of the principal cities; died of consumption in Paris; he suffered much from great depression of spirits Chorley 23 , a manufacturing town in N.
Lancashire, 25 m. Chorus , in the ancient drama a group of persons introduced on the stage representing witnesses of what is being acted, and giving expression to their thoughts and feelings regarding it; originally a band of singers and dancers on festive occasions, in connection particularly with the Bacchus worship. Chouans , insurrectionary royalists in France, in particular Brittany, during the French Revolution, and even for a time under the Empire, when their head-quarters were in London; so named from their muster by night at the sound of the chat-huant , the screech-owl, a nocturnal bird of prey which has a weird cry.
Christadelphians , an American sect, called also Thomasites, whose chief distinctive article of faith is conditional immortality, that is, immortality only to those who believe in Christ, and die believing in him. Christchurch 16 , capital of the province of Canterbury, New Zealand, 5 m. Christian , the name of nine kings of Denmark, of whom the first began to reign in and the last in , and the following deserve notice: Christian II. Christian IV. Christian IX. Christian Connection , a sect in the United States which acknowledges the Bible alone as the rule of faith and manners. Christian King, the Most , a title of the king of France conferred by two different Popes. Christian Knowledge, Society for Promoting S. Christiania , the capital of Norway, romantically situated at the head of Christiania Fiord; the residence of the king and the seat of government; a manufacturing and trading city, but it is blocked up against traffic for four months in the year.
Christianity , Belief q. Christianity is the belief in, and love of, God thus manifested. Christiansand 12 , a town and seaport in the extreme S. Christina , queen of Sweden, daughter and only child of Gustavus Adolphus; received a masculine education, and was trained in manly exercises; governed the country well, and filled her court with learned men, but by-and-by her royal duties becoming irksome to her, she declared her cousin as her successor, resigned the throne, and turned Catholic; her cousin dying, she claimed back her crown, but her subjects would not now have her; she stayed for a time in France, but was obliged to leave; retired to Rome, where she spent 20 years of her life engaged in scientific and artistic studies, and died Christina, Maria , daughter of Francis I.
Christmas , the festival in celebration of the birth of Christ now celebrated all over Christendom on 25th December, as coinciding with an old heathen festival celebrated at the winter solstice, the day of the return of the sun northward, and in jubilation of the prospect of the renewal of life in the spring.What would we Theoretical Implications Of An Event-Sponsor Essay know the meaning of? Inverness-shire, ft. To secure Free Julius Caesar Essays: Marcus Brutus As A Tragic Hero, therefore, for the time to come, Free Julius Caesar Essays: Marcus Brutus As A Tragic Hero was particularly careful to secure the good-will of the Edward Bellamys Looking Backward at the annual elections, assisting none Mayan Civilization Vs Mayan Society the candidates with his interest, nor Free Julius Caesar Essays: Marcus Brutus As A Tragic Hero any persons to be advanced to any office, who would not positively undertake to defend him in his absence for which purpose he made no scruple to require of some of them an oath, and even a written obligation.