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Arguments Against Socrates Punishment



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Why Was Socrates Executed - A Brief Summary of The Trial and Death of Socrates - Greek Philosophy

Phaedo relates the dialogue from that day to Echecrates , a Pythagorean philosopher. The scene is set in Phlius where Echecrates who, meeting Phaedo, asks for news about the last days of Socrates. Phaedo explains why a delay occurred between his trial and his death, and describes the scene in a prison at Athens on the final day, naming those present. He tells how he had visited Socrates early in the morning with the others. Socrates' wife Xanthippe was there, but was very distressed and Socrates asked that she be taken away. Socrates' relates how, bidden by a recurring dream to "make and cultivate music", he wrote a hymn and then began writing poetry based on Aesop's Fables. Socrates tells Cebes to "bid him his friend farewell from me; say that I would have him come after me if he be a wise man" Simmias expresses confusion as to why they ought hasten to follow Socrates to death.

Socrates then states " He asks, "Why do you say Man ought not to kill himself because he possesses no actual ownership of himself, as he is actually the property of the gods. He says, "I too believe that the gods are our guardians, and that we men are a chattel of theirs". While the philosopher seeks always to rid himself of the body, and to focus solely on things concerning the soul, to commit suicide is prohibited as man is not sole possessor of his body.

For, as stated in the Phaedo : "the philosopher more than other men frees the soul from association with the body as much as possible". Body and soul are separate, then. The philosopher frees himself from the body because the body is an impediment to the attainment of truth. Did you ever reach them truths with any bodily sense? Is the truth of them ever perceived through the bodily organs? Or rather, is not the nearest approach to the knowledge of their several natures made by him who so orders his intellectual vision as to have the most exact conception of the essence of each thing he considers?

The philosopher, if he loves true wisdom and not the passions and appetites of the body, accepts that he can come closest to true knowledge and wisdom in death, as he is no longer confused by the body and the senses. In life, the rational and intelligent functions of the soul are restricted by bodily senses of pleasure, pain, sight, and sound. As the philosopher practices death his entire life, he should greet it amicably and not be discouraged upon its arrival, for, since the universe the Gods created for us in life is essentially "good," why would death be anything but a continuation of this goodness? Death is a place where better and wiser Gods rule and where the most noble souls exist: "And therefore, so far as that is concerned, I not only do not grieve, but I have great hopes that there is something in store for the dead The soul attains virtue when it is purified from the body: "He who has got rid, as far as he can, of eyes and ears and, so to speak, of the whole body, these being in his opinion distracting elements when they associate with the soul hinder her from acquiring truth and knowledge — who, if not he, is likely to attain to the knowledge of true being?

Cebes voices his fear of death to Socrates: " In order to alleviate Cebes' worry that the soul might perish at death, Socrates introduces his first argument for the immortality of the soul. This argument is often called the Cyclical Argument. It supposes that the soul must be immortal since the living come from the dead. Socrates says: "Now if it be true that the living come from the dead, then our souls must exist in the other world, for if not, how could they have been born again? He goes on to show, using examples of relationships, such as asleep-awake and hot-cold, that things that have opposites come to be from their opposite. One falls asleep after having been awake.

And after being asleep, he awakens. Things that are hot came from being cold and vice versa. Socrates then gets Cebes to conclude that the dead are generated from the living, through death, and that the living are generated from the dead, through birth. The souls of the dead must exist in some place for them to be able to return to life. He interrupts Socrates to point this out, saying:. But this would be impossible unless our soul had been somewhere before existing in this form of man; here then is another proof of the soul's immortality.

Socrates' second argument, the Theory of Recollection , shows that it is possible to draw information out of a person who seems not to have any knowledge of a subject prior to his being questioned about it a priori knowledge. This person must have gained this knowledge in a prior life, and is now merely recalling it from memory. Since the person in Socrates' story is able to provide correct answers to his interrogator, it must be the case that his answers arose from recollections of knowledge gained during a previous life. Socrates presents his third argument for the immortality of the soul, the so-called Affinity Argument , where he shows that the soul most resembles that which is invisible and divine, and the body resembles that which is visible and mortal.

From this, it is concluded that while the body may be seen to exist after death in the form of a corpse, as the body is mortal and the soul is divine, the soul must outlast the body. As to be truly virtuous during life is the quality of a great man who will perpetually dwell as a soul in the underworld. However, regarding those who were not virtuous during life, and so favored the body and pleasures pertaining exclusively to it, Socrates also speaks. He says that such a soul as this is:. Persons of such a constitution will be dragged back into corporeal life, according to Socrates. These persons will even be punished while in Hades. Their punishment will be of their own doing, as they will be unable to enjoy the singular existence of the soul in death because of their constant craving for the body.

These souls are finally "imprisoned in another body". Socrates concludes that the soul of the virtuous man is immortal, and the course of its passing into the underworld is determined by the way he lived his life. The philosopher, and indeed any man similarly virtuous, in neither fearing death, nor cherishing corporeal life as something idyllic, but by loving truth and wisdom, his soul will be eternally unperturbed after the death of the body, and the afterlife will be full of goodness. Simmias confesses that he does not wish to disturb Socrates during his final hours by unsettling his belief in the immortality of the soul, and those present are reluctant to voice their skepticism.

Socrates grows aware of their doubt and assures his interlocutors that he does indeed believe in the soul's immortality, regardless of whether or not he has succeeded in showing it as yet. For this reason, he is not upset facing death and assures them that they ought to express their concerns regarding the arguments. Simmias then presents his case that the soul resembles the harmony of the lyre. It may be, then, that as the soul resembles the harmony in its being invisible and divine, once the lyre has been destroyed, the harmony too vanishes, therefore when the body dies, the soul too vanishes.

Once the harmony is dissipated, we may infer that so too will the soul dissipate once the body has been broken, through death. Socrates pauses, and asks Cebes to voice his objection as well. While his physical prowess and intimidating figure are frightful in and of themselves, Scar's most dangerous element is his right arm, which is able to destroy anything with which it comes into contact by way of the intricate and arcane Transmutation Array tattooed thereupon. As a fundamentalist opponent of alchemy , Scar does not consider himself an alchemist in the traditional sense, but the strain of alchemy that his arm itself allows him to produce is powerful, advanced and unique.

As observed by those who have seen it in action and lived to tell the tale, Scar's method follows the cyclical flow of transmutation, but only takes into account the first two steps - comprehension and deconstruction. By "stopping at the second step", the physical structure of whatever he targets is broken down and not reshaped, essentially reducing it to debris. By applying this method to his victims, he destroys their internal systems general organs in the manga, but the brain specifically in the anime version instantly while circumventing both Human Transmutation and the Ishvalan stigma associated with giving new form to one of God's creations. In the anime, he is able to destroy Chimeras by blowing them up, reducing their bodies to bloody splatters.

Still, for all the serial killer's anti-alchemical posturing, the fact that he is unable to deconstruct an object whose composition he does not comprehend suggests that Scar does have a fair bit of alchemical knowledge and must actively identify, or at least make educated guesses at, the makeup of objects he wishes to destroy; despite his repeated assertion that the arm and not himself is the one performing alchemy, Scar is an amateur alchemist by practice. The origin of the markings on Scar's arm differ somewhat between the manga and anime story-lines of the series, but in both it was originally the right arm of Scar's older brother , transferred from one sibling to the other in an emergency procedure during the Ishval Civil War.

Scar's arm array is the deconstruction half of a two-piece complementary set designed by his older brother. By studying both Amestrian alchemy and Xingese alkahestry , Scar's elder brother was able to find similarities between the two and combine them into an array that incorporated their strengths. The right arm, marked with "TERRA" the Latin word for "Earth" and "AER" the Latin word for "Air" , carries an array incorporating twin snakes in a Caduceus pattern surrounded by reptilian scales which may represent the " Dragon's Pulse " of alkahestric origin and a series of tribal arrows leading down to the wrist, representing an outward flow. This arm is designated for deconstruction. The left arm, designated for reconstruction, is marked with the same array turned upside down to represent an inward flow and with the Dragon's Pulse tattooed in white ink rather than the black ink of the right arm.

After an attack by State Alchemist Solf J. Kimblee left the young Scar dying from exsanguination due to the loss of his right arm, his older brother used the Alkahestric properties to transfer his own right arm to his brother's body in exchange for his life. Though Scar is unable to transmute past the deconstruction stage with this arm, the Alkahestric nature of the array makes his transmutations immune to Father 's alchemy-sealing ability. Scar reveals in Chapter that he had, at some point in the previous several months, deciphered the deconstruction array enough to accurately recreate the reconstruction array that had been on his brother's left arm.

Now, with his own left arm marked with the same array, he is finally able to create in addition to being able to destroy and can perform full transmutations with the full power of his brother's extensive research. Though new to the craft, not having had enough confidence to even make an attempt before The Promised Day , Scar proves himself able to create large spikes from the ground similar to those used by the Elric brothers and Alex Louis Armstrong. However, instead of being conical, Scar's spikes take the form of hexagonal pyramids. The array on Scar's arm is a fragment of a larger array called the Grand Arcanum Array , which his older brother had tattooed over his entire body after delving into old alchemic methods in a failed human transmutation of his late lover.

The Grand Arcanum, an ancient and forbidden version of alchemy native and unique to Ishvalan culture, had a method to create a Philosopher's Stone by reacting with lost souls and other incomplete Stones, absorbing them into the array. Kimblee left the young Scar dying from the loss of his arm, his older brother regained his senses long enough to transfer his own right arm to his younger sibling at the cost of his own life. As such, Scar's right arm is an incomplete Philosopher's Stone, retaining enough of his brother's full-body Grand Arcanum tattoo to react in the same way.

It gives off a scarlet light when used, in keeping with the nature of the Stone, and painfully absorbs Red Stones and the souls of Scar's victims into itself as it attempts to become complete. The markings on the arm are similar to those in the manga, but are more vague and lack the defined symbology of the Dragon's Pulse arm. Additionally, because of its differing origins, it carries a different meaning. It appears that his arm is able to reconstruct, but is not allowed to by Scar's religious ideology. Scar's Brother : They loved each other dearly. While Scar and his brother were near opposites and Scar never understood his brother's studies regarding alchemy and alkahestry, he genuinely cared for him.

When Kimblee attacks them, Scar's brother shields Scar and later even cuts off his own arm and transmutes it onto Scar to save his life. When Scar realized his brother died, he went on a rampage which ended up killing Winry's parents. He would keep his brother's research notes which would later prove useful in saving Amestris. His death along with the death of his fellow Ishvalans is one of the main reasons for his hatred of Kimblee.

May Chang : Being a child and not being a state alchemist, Scar had no vendetta against her. She healed his wound and he allowed her to journey with him. She is one of the few people who didn't see Scar as a monster and he tended to protect her. She in turn grew to care for him as a brother, often healing his wounds and remaining attached to him. Marcoh : The two met while Scar was investigating the underground tunnels to find the homunculi and learn why they instigated the Ishvalan war.

Scar happened to be above Marcoh's prison cell and Marcoh revealed he was the alchemist responsible for the Ishvalan massacre. He begs Scar to kill him so the homunculi won't force him to be part of another genocide but Scar spares him to learn more and disfigures him so no one can recognize him. While there is clear animosity from Scar regarding Marcoh and what he has done, he still keeps him alive as his knowledge regarding the homunculi and Scar's brother's research notes was invaluable. While it is possible Scar still doesn't forgive him for what happened, he manages to tolerate his presence.

In the anime however, Marcoh was one of Scar's targets and later attempt to kill him, along with Edward Elric, but Marcoh figured out the symbols on Scar's tattooed right arm, and helped drive him off. Winry : He accidentally killed her parents when he was on a rampage due to the extreme pain of his wounds and trauma from witnessing his brother and fellow countrymen be killed by Kimblee.

When she finds out he killed them, he tells her she is justified in shooting him but then she would become his enemy. He didn't hesitate to attack her but when Ed protected her, it reminded him of how his own brother protected him from Kimblee. When they meet again in the North and Winry offers to treat his wounds, he asks if she forgives him. She says no but that her parents would want her to help him.

The two traveled together and although the two didn't interact much, it seemed Scar did grow to regret killing her parents since they did save his life. Mustang : He hated Mustang as he did the many state alchemists who killed his countrymen and on a few occasions tried to murder him.

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