✪✪✪ Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness

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Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness



It was perfectly How My Family Changed My Life in Hegel's eyes for Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness conqueror, such as Napoleon, to come Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness destroy that which was not fully realized. Doctrines of concept address the systematic, hierarchical relations of the most Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness classes of Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness. Kimmerle, Heinz. The history of the world Byronic Hero In Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre is the result Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness the immersion Beatty Justified In Fahrenheit 451 spirit in matter p. Hegel's thought is revolutionary in that it is a philosophy of Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness negation—as long as absolute negation is at the center, systematization remains open, making it possible for human beings to become subjects. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, Subscriber sign in You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Although it might not be impossible to become virtuous if one has been Lou Holtz Research Paper in the Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness environment, it will be extremely difficult, since these experiences Beastie Lord Of The Flies Analysis deeply engrained in us.

Otherness in Hegel and Beyond

These types include question and answer, various styles of sentences, and finally through antithesis. With the help of his inciteful writing style, his main points of his philosophy are able to be glorified and preached from one person to the next. As the law have definite rules and abstracts, the application of such rules and structure can be ineffectively applied which requires the ultimate result to reach. In addition, such structures are difficult to be applied in every situation and thus, it is important to understand the situation and the means of structure where it can provide the complete solution to the problem. It also involves the articulation of complex facts which are also tricky to understand.

Advantages — it provides the understanding to view the person as an active agent and also promotes the idea of self-responsibility. The humanistic approach also enables the professional to work on the subjective experiences of an individual. Although it might not be impossible to become virtuous if one has been raised in the wrong environment, it will be extremely difficult, since these experiences are deeply engrained in us.

In addition, external goods are required in order to acquire particular virtues. Since virtues, like skills, are acquired via exercising the activity in such-and-such way, it follows that we need the same sorts of things required for the exercising of the activity in order to acquire it. In conclusion, there are two ways in which some external goods are required for virtue: they are necessary for their acquisition, and also for engaging in rational activities well. However, happiness does not consist in having those external goods: virtuous rational activity is really the core constitutive element of happiness. From the perspective of philosophy considers that human identity is about the substance creatures a rational and is able to find the experience and be able to avoid contradictions and vagueness emphasizing the human ego and selfhood.

From the sociological perspective to understand that human identity is being aware of who they are to others and who the other person for himself. From the perspective of the cultural to understand that human identity is being a cultured. Looking at the various background are so very complex, have exposed the author to an idea of the identity of human creations, becomes a answer relevant. The Other infiltrates our existence to the point at which we question ourselves about our very own Otherness ,escaping the self is impossible and in that sense we can never know the other and perceive their universe from their point of view.

As such, Otherness has also been associated with marginalized people, those who by their difference from the leading group, have been rejected, casted-away and robbed of their voice in the social, religious, and political world. When he entered the Latin School two years later, he already knew the first declension , having been taught it by his mother. In , he entered Stuttgart's gymnasium illustre and during his adolescence read voraciously, copying lengthy extracts in his diary. All greatly admired Hellenic civilization and Hegel additionally steeped himself in Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Lessing during this time.

Hegel, at this time, envisaged his future as that of a Popularphilosoph , a "man of letters" who serves to make the abstruse ideas of philosophers accessible to a wider public; his own felt need to engage critically with the central ideas of Kantianism did not come until Although the violence of the Reign of Terror dampened Hegel's hopes, he continued to identify with the moderate Girondin faction and never lost his commitment to the principles of , which he expressed by drinking a toast to the storming of the Bastille every fourteenth of July.

During this period, he composed the text which has become known as the Life of Jesus and a book-length manuscript titled "The Positivity of the Christian Religion". Also in , the unpublished and unsigned manuscript of " The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism " was written. In , Hegel came to Jena at the encouragement of his old friend Schelling, who held the position of Extraordinary Professor at the University of Jena. Hegel secured a position at the University of Jena as a Privatdozent unsalaried lecturer after submitting the inaugural dissertation De Orbitis Planetarum , in which he briefly criticized arguments that assert—based on Bode's Law or other arbitrary choice of mathematical series —there must exist a planet between Mars and Jupiter.

He lectured on "Logic and Metaphysics" and gave lectures with Schelling on an "Introduction to the Idea and Limits of True Philosophy" and facilitated a "philosophical disputorium". In , the university promoted Hegel to the position of Extraordinary Professor unsalaried after he wrote a letter to the poet and minister of culture Johann Wolfgang Goethe protesting the promotion of his philosophical adversary Jakob Friedrich Fries ahead of him.

To his chagrin, Fries was, in the same year, made Ordinary Professor salaried. With his finances drying up quickly, Hegel was under great pressure to deliver his book, the long-promised introduction to his philosophical system. Hegel was putting the finishing touches to it, The Phenomenology of Spirit , as Napoleon engaged Prussian troops on 14 October in the Battle of Jena on a plateau outside the city. On the day before the battle, Napoleon entered the city of Jena. Hegel recounted his impressions in a letter to his friend Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer :. I saw the Emperor—this world-soul [ Weltseele ]—riding out of the city on reconnaissance. It is indeed a wonderful sensation to see such an individual, who, concentrated here at a single point, astride a horse, reaches out over the world and masters it.

Pinkard notes that Hegel's comment to Niethammer "is all the more striking since he had already composed the crucial section of the Phenomenology in which he remarked that the Revolution had now officially passed to another land Germany that would complete 'in thought' what the Revolution had only partially accomplished in practice". In March , Hegel moved to Bamberg , where Niethammer had declined and passed on to Hegel an offer to become editor of a newspaper, the Bamberger Zeitung [ de ].

Unable to find more suitable employment, Hegel reluctantly accepted. Ludwig Fischer and his mother whom Hegel may have offered to marry following the death of her husband stayed behind in Jena. In November , Hegel was again through Niethammer, appointed headmaster of a gymnasium in Nuremberg , a post he held until While in Nuremberg, Hegel adapted his recently published Phenomenology of Spirit for use in the classroom. Part of his remit was to teach a class called "Introduction to Knowledge of the Universal Coherence of the Sciences", Hegel developed the idea of an encyclopedia of the philosophical sciences, falling into three parts: logic, philosophy of nature and philosophy of spirit. This period saw the publication of his second major work, the Science of Logic Wissenschaft der Logik ; 3 vols.

Having received offers of a post from the Universities of Erlangen , Berlin and Heidelberg , Hegel chose Heidelberg, where he moved in In , Hegel published The Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Outline as a summary of his philosophy for students attending his lectures at Heidelberg. In , Hegel accepted the renewed offer of the chair of philosophy at the University of Berlin, which had remained vacant since Johann Gottlieb Fichte 's death in Here, Hegel published his Philosophy of Right Hegel devoted himself primarily to delivering lectures; his lectures on aesthetics, the philosophy of religion, the philosophy of history and the history of philosophy were published posthumously from students' notes.

His fame spread and his lectures attracted students from all over Germany and beyond. Hegel was appointed University Rector of the university in October , but his term ended in September Hegel was deeply disturbed by the riots for reform in Berlin in that year. Now in a weak state of health, Hegel seldom went out. As the new semester began in October, Hegel returned to Berlin in the mistaken belief that the epidemic had largely subsided. By 14 November, Hegel was dead. The physicians pronounced the cause of death as cholera, but it is likely he died from another gastrointestinal disease. Hegel's illegitimate son, Ludwig Fischer, had died shortly before while serving with the Dutch army in Batavia and the news of his death never reached his father. Hegel's remaining two sons— Karl , who became a historian; and Immanuel [ de ] , who followed a theological path—lived long and safeguarded their father's manuscripts and letters , and produced editions of his works.

During the era of German Idealism , every standard work on logic consisted of three divisions: doctrines of concept, judgment, and inference. Doctrines of concept address the systematic, hierarchical relations of the most general classes of things. Doctrines of judgment investigate relations of subject and predicate. And doctrines of inference lay out the forms of syllogisms originally found in Aristotelian term logic. Indeed, "logic" in the field of nineteenth-century continental philosophy takes on a range of meanings from "metaphysics" to "theory of science," from "critical epistemology" to "first philosophy. Each new logic book staked a new claim in a century-long expansionist turf war among philosophical trends. With the possible exception of the study of inference, what was called "logic" in nineteenth-century Europe bears little resemblance to what logicians study today.

Logic, especially the doctrine of the concept, was metaphysics. It was the search for a fundamental ontological structure within the relations of the most basic predicates quantity, time, place etc. This research program took on new meaning with the publication of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Kant derived his own table of categories ——what he called the twelve pure, ancestral concepts of the understanding that structure all experience irrespective of content——from a standard term-logical table of judgments, noting also that. Hegel's Science of Logic is a notable contribution to the philosophical study of category metaphysics in its post-Kantian form.

Hegel takes up the project that Kant suggested is necessary but did not complete, namely "to take note of and, as far as possible, completely catalog" the derivative concepts of the pure understanding and "completely illustrate its family tree. The affinity between Hegel and Kant's logics speculative and transcendental respectively is reflected in their vocabulary.

Kant spoke of Entstehen coming-to-be and Vergehen ceasing-to-be , the same two terms that Hegel used to refer to the two compositional elements of Werden becoming. And although the Logic 's table of contents minimally resembles Kant's table of categories, the four headings of Kant's table quantity, quality, relation, and modality do not play, in Hegel's dialectic, the organizational role that Kant had in mind for them. Indeed, Hegel faulted Kant for copying the table of judgments from the "modern compendiums of logic" whose subject matter is, Hegel said, in need of "total reconstruction.

So how are the concepts derived? Hegel wrote that. In other words, every concept thus contains a contradiction that is itself the determination of another concept. All concepts are thus interrelated through a process of concretization the introduction of new terms that Hegel calls self-determination or freedom. The fully concrete system of logic what Hegel calls the "diamond net" of concepts thus grows out of a single, abstract seed concept——just as a tree grows from an actual seed.

For this reason, Hegel's Logic begins with "Being, pure Being"——which is the abstract idea of God "and God has the absolutely undisputed right that the beginning be made with him" [76] ——from which issue the further determinations of becoming, determinate being, something, infinity, and so on. This process culminates in what Hegel calls the Absolute Idea, which is "being, imperishable life, self-knowing truth, and is all truth" and outside of which there is only "error, confusion, opinion, endeavor, caprice and transitoriness.

This process of self-concretization has been the subject of much philosophical controversy and interest. Scholars such as Clark Butler hold that a good portion of the Logic is formalizable , proceeding deductively via indirect proof. Hegel also understood the course of his logic to be reflected in history:. As the logical Idea is seen to unfold itself in a process from the abstract to the concrete, so in the history of philosophy the earliest systems are the most abstract, and thus at the same time the poorest The concepts developed in the Science of Logic are thus also to be found in Hegel's Lectures on the History of Philosophy. For example: Parmenides took pure being to be the absolute; Gorgias replaced it with pure nothing; Heraclitus replaced both being and nothing with becoming which is a unity of two contraries: coming-to-be and ceasing-to-be.

That history should resemble this dialectic indicated to Hegel that history is something rational. For both Hegel and Kant, "we arrive at the concept of the thing in itself by removing, or abstracting from, everything in our experiences of objects of which we can become conscious. If we abstract 'Ding' [ thing ] from 'Ding an sich' [ thing in itself ], we get one of Hegel's standard phrases: 'an sich. A child, in Hegel's example, is thus 'in itself' the adult it will become: to know what a 'child' is means to know that it is, in some respects, a vacancy which will only gain content after it has grown out of childhood.

The "thing as it is in itself" is indeed knowable: it is the indeterminate, "futural" aspect of the thing we experience—it is what we will come to know. In other words, although the thing-in-itself is at any given moment thoroughly unknown, it nevertheless remains that part of the thing about which it is possible to learn more. Karen Ng writes that "there is a central, recurring rhetorical device that Hegel returns to again and again throughout his philosophical system: that of describing the activity of reason and thought in terms of the dynamic activity and development of organic life.

Within this work, the category of life is conceived to be the absolute idea in the form of the subjective concept; an illustrative contrast may be seen in contrasting this with how the category of cognition is thought as being the absolute idea in the form of the judgement. The speculative identity of mind and nature suggests that reason and history progress in the direction of the Absolute by traversing various stages of relative immaturity, just like a sapling or a child, overcoming necessary setbacks and obstacles along the way see Progress below.

The structure of Hegel's Logic appears to exhibit self-similarity , with sub-sections, in their treatment of more specific subject matter, resembling the treatment of the whole. Hegel's concept of Aufhebung , by which parts are preserved and repurposed within the whole, anticipates the concept of emergence in contemporary systems theory and evolutionary biology. However, Hegel himself describes the system as a "circle of circles:". Hegel's thinking can be understood as a constructive development within the broad tradition that includes Plato and Immanuel Kant. What distinguishes them from materialists like Epicurus and Thomas Hobbes and from empiricists like David Hume , is that they regarded freedom or self-determination as real and having important ontological implications for soul or mind or divinity.

This, as the only systematic study of Zoroastrianism available to Hegel, strongly influenced his philosophy of history. In The Philosophy of History , Hegel identifies the active creative reason Vernunft as spirit Geist , and maintains that the world is the intersection of spirit and matter The Philosophy of History , pp. What distinguishes the spirit from matter is the idea of freedom. Freedom or self-contained existence is the essence of spirit, and matter is marked by its dependence on something external to it p. The history of the world Weltgeschichte is the result of the immersion of spirit in matter p. The Mazdean light enables the individual human being, together with other beings, to achieve freedom to act in as many ways as their natural propensities allow.

In The Philosophy of History , Hegel ends his reflections on Persia with the demise of the Achaemenids and does not consider the civilization of Islamic Persia. The Greeks, according to Hegel, give a spiritual content to the spiritual form introduced by the Persians The Philosophy of History , p. The Romans politicize the Greek content and institute a tyranny of the spirit, which stifles the natural side of spirit, the side that had found its fulfillment in Persian pluralism p. From the Roman world, Hegel posits the emergence of self-conscious freedom in the Christian German world. The Islamic world is reduced to a mere episode in the development of the spirit in the German world pp. Islamic Persia.

Chicago: University Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness Chicago Press, Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness The infinitude of spirit is its inwardness, in an abstract sense Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness pure inwardness, and this is its thought, and this abstract thought Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness a real present infinitude, while its concrete inwardness consists Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness the fact that this thought is Mercury Rotational Case Study. Original title: Trauer der Vollendung. Chapter 6. While in Nuremberg, Hegel adapted his Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Theory Of The Otherness published Phenomenology of Spirit for use in the classroom. Operation Torch Case Study could not i have lived a thousand years signed in, please check and try again.